Ontario Grain Farmer October 2022

www.OntarioGrainFarmer.ca Publ ished by MARKET DEVELOPMENT OCTOBER 2022 Reducing fertilizer emissions STRIVING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

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6 ON THE COVER Reducing fertilizer emissions Michael Buttenham STRIVING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY From the CEO’s desk SUSTAINABLE ONTARIO GRAINS 4 Clean Fuel Regulation update Matt McIntosh 10 Processing capacity growth Ontario Grain Farmer 12 Business side Conversations with business experts 27 GrainTALK newsletter An update on Grain Farmers of Ontario news and events 20 Ontario’s wheat quality Hayley Micallef 16 Crop side Agronomic information from crop specialists 15 Code of practice updated Ontario Grain Farmer 18 New markets for DON-infested corn Treena Hein 28 Breakfast from the farm Ontario Grain Farmer 30 Port of Oshawa expansion Melanie Epp 32 Achieving #AndyClean Rebecca Hannam 34 Good in Every Grain Updates on our campaign 38 The Royal’s 100th anniversary Lois Harris 36 22IN THIS ISSUE Grain Farmers of Ontario financial statements OCTOBER 2022 volume 14, number 1 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMERis published 9 times a year (December/January, February, March, April/May, June/July, August, September, October, and November) through Grain Farmers of Ontario. Distribution is to all Ontario barley, corn, oat, soybean, and wheat farmer-members. Associate Membership Subscription available upon request. Views and opinions expressed in this magazine are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the policies of Grain Farmers of Ontario. Seek professional advice before undertaking any recommendations or suggestions presented in this magazine. PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT NO. 40065283. Return undeliverable items to Grain Farmers of Ontario, 679 Southgate Drive, Guelph, ON N1G 4S2. © Grain Farmers of Ontario all rights reserved. Publisher: Grain Farmers of Ontario, Phone: 1-800-265-0550, Website: www.gfo.ca; Managing Editor: Mary Feldskov; Production Co-ordinator: Kim Ratz; Advertising Sales: Joanne Tichborne Grains on the Go Ontario Grain Farmer 31

Behind the scenes, our staff and Board of Directors are engaging daily in discussions with stakeholders from across the value chain to find solutions that will allow us to continue to grow the safe, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable grains that the world needs. l Sustainable Ontario grains WHEN GRAIN FARMERS of Ontario updated its strategic plan in 2021, protecting and growing markets was identified as one of the five strategic objectives for the organization. Protecting existing markets, diversifying domestic processing capacity, expanding export markets, and amplifying the quality, versatility, and sustainability of Ontario grains and oilseeds are among the priorities — all made much more challenging by the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and, in 2022, the impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. As international supply chains buckled under pressure and global food insecurity started to rise, the need for Ontario’s grain farmers to meet growing demand has come into sharp focus. Investing in growth opportunities for the sector is paying dividends for Ontario growers; in this edition of the Ontario Grain Farmer magazine, you can read about new processing facilities in Ontario, increased capacity for shipping grain, research on alternative uses for DON-infested corn, and more. Investments from the federal and provincial governments, Grain Farmers of Ontario, and private enterprises into these and many other market growth projects are all good news stories to celebrate. As the world’s population grows — to an estimated 8.5 billion in 2030 — so does the demand for food. Ontario’s farmers have been successful at producing more, on less land, with fewer inputs, while producing lower greenhouse gas emissions. Our sustainability story is what sets us apart when we are connecting with new partners in growing and expanding domestic and international markets. Ontario’s farmers know that we need to do our part in the face of a changing climate and continue building a resilient, strong, and economically viable grain and oilseed sector. But to meet the global demand for more grain, as we all know, we need fertilizer. That’s a topic that’s making national and international news at the moment. Uncertain supply, dramatic price increases, and tariffs on product coming from Russia have wreaked havoc on Ontario’s farmers. And recent announcements from the federal government with calls to cut fertilizer emissions by 30 per cent by 2030 have increased the conversation around our ability to grow enough food to meet the growing domestic and international demand — and raised a lot of questions for which we don’t, as of yet, have all the answers. Grain Farmers of Ontario is committed to working with government and industry partners to tell our sustainability story. Our farmermembers are already implementing many best management practices and are committed to lessening their overall environmental footprint. Farmers will always be improving and innovating as new tools, techniques, and knowledge becomes available. Crosby Devitt, CEO, Grain Farmers of Ontario From the CEO’s desk 4

ALWAYS FOLLOW GRAIN MARKETING AND ALL OTHER STEWARDSHIP PRACTICES AND PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. Details of these requirements can be found in the Trait Stewardship Responsibilities Notice to Farmers printed in this publication. Genes that fit your farm®is a registered trademark of SeCan. Mahony R2 2350 HU Triquet R2X NEW 2475 HU Ramage XF NEW 2675 HU Altitude R2 2725 HU Orr R2X NEW 2750 HU Beliveau R2X 2775 HU Keith XFNEW 2900 HU Express R2X 3100 HU xpre s Genes that fit your farm. ® 866-797-7874 secan.com * Donation based on final sale. SeCan will donate for SeCan Roundup Ready 2 Xtend, ® XtendFlex®and Roundup Ready 2 Yield®soybeans ordered between OCTOBER 10 –17, 2022 Contact your SeCan seed retailer.

Cover story 6 IN DECEMBER 2020, the Government of Canada proposed a fertilizer emissions reduction target. The proposed target is looking at a voluntary commitment to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilizer applications by 30 per cent below 2020 levels by the year 2030. CLIMATE TARGETS The Government of Canada has committed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets by signing the Paris Agreement. Within this, Canada has set targets and is evaluating every sector’s GHG emissions and opportunities to reduce them. The most recent targets are looking at ways for Canada to reduce GHG emissions by 40 to 45 percent by 2030 according to 2005 levels. The Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) climate report titled, A Healthy Environment and Healthy Economy, proposed a voluntary target to reduce N2O emissions from fertilizer applications by 30 per cent below 2020 levels by 2030. The proposed target does not mean a 30 per cent reduction in fertilizer use but rather an absolute or total emissions reduction in N2O emissions from fertilizer application by 30 per cent. This is a key part of the target that has gained a lot of attention, but what does this mean? Absolute or total emissions looks at the total quantity of greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of the fertilizer emissions target, the Government of Canada is looking at reducing the total quantity of fertilizer N2O emissions in 2020 by 30 per cent by the year 2030. Regardless of what happens in the future with crop yields, we need to reduce 30 per cent from the 2020 baseline. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS (N2O) To fully understand the scope of the target, we need to understand what it includes — it does not include all crop nutrients and fertilizers. The focus of the proposed target is looking at N2O emissions that can be associated with nitrogen fertilizer applications. We know that nitrogen is a critical nutrient required by plants and is essential to growing a high-yielding and high-quality crop. In some cases, not all nitrogen applied is taken up by plants and can be lost into the environment in different ways as N2O emissions. N2O emissions have a significant impact on the warming of the atmosphere. It can be equated that N2O has about 300 times the warming potential of carbon dioxide. N2O is released naturally by oceans, soil bacteria, and even manure. Additional sources of N2O include industrial processes, wastewater treatment, combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, soil cultivation practices, and, as mentioned, the use of fertilizers. Canada’s National Inventory Report (NIR), as reported by the Government of Canada, tracks and reports Canada’s GHG emissions across sectors. Canada’s latest NIR identified that agriculture accounted for 75 per cent of national N2O emissions. Furthermore, nitrogen fertilizer application accounted for 21 per cent of total agricultural emissions. HOW IS NITROGEN LOST ON THE FARM? Nitrogen fertilizer is a critical component of crop production to maintain crop yields and quality. Farmers work hard to place fertilizer as efficiently as possible, but there are some instances where not all nitrogen is taken up by the crop and is lost into the environment. Agricultural soils naturally emit N2O, and direct N2O emissions occur from nitrogen fertilizer applications, including manure and fertilizer. N2O emissions are also available following the decomposition of crop residue. The main ways that nitrogen can be lost into the environment are through denitrification, volatilization, leaching, runoff, and erosion. Nitrogen loss can depend on factors like soil type, weather, and climatic conditions that can influence the rate of loss when the right conditions are present. HOW ARE WE IMPROVING? Grain Farmers of Ontario have remained committed to reducing our impacts and ensuring our farmer-members have the means to improve economic viability while also reducing environmental loss. Reducing fertilizer emissions STRIVING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Michael Buttenham continued on page 8 • The Government of Canada has proposed a voluntary 30 per cent reduction target of fertilizer emissions. • The proposed target does not mean a 30 per cent reduction in fertilizer use but rather an absolute or total emission reduction of N20 emissions from fertilizer applications. • Nitrogen can be lost into the environment through denitrification, volatilization, leaching, run-off, and erosion. • Utilizing the 4R nutrient management framework can help farmers achieve a reduction in N20 emissions. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW


Between 1981 and 2011, our land-use efficiency has increased by 39 per cent in corn, 17 per cent in soybeans, and 37 per cent in winter wheat, meaning Ontario’s grain farmers are producing more with less land. Since 1981, Ontario’s grain farmers have reduced their climate impact by 45 per cent in corn, 18 per cent in soybeans, and 36 per cent in winter wheat. Grain Farmers of Ontario continues to make significant investments in research that helps to create win-win solutions for our farmermembers. Some of the key research projects we fund include examining nutrient use efficiency within corn, soybean, and wheat rotations along with cover crops and 4R Strategies to mitigate GHG emissions. Research areas focus on economic and environmental sustainability efforts to 8 maximize productivity while reducing environmental impact. 4R Ontario is a nutrient management framework for the Ontario agricultural sector. It was built as a voluntary industry solution that avoids the need for regulation. Ontario is unique with its climate, soils, crops, and agricultural production system, which requires an adaptive management approach. The 4R Nutrient Stewardship is the framework needed to ensure there is no one-size-fits-all approach for improving nutrient use efficiency in Ontario with farmers. With practices and research in soil health, cover crops, and the 4R Nutrient Stewardship, we are positioning ourselves to better understand our impacts and showmeasurable economic and environmental improvements. EMISSIONS INTENSITY REDUCTIONS Grain Farmers of Ontario want to ensure our farmer-members can continue to use fertilizer in a sustainable way to ensure food security and reduce environmental loss while also maintaining productivity for farmers’ livelihood. Grain Farmers of Ontario is advocating against an absolute emissions reduction target and would like to see an emphasis on emissions intensity reduction. By focusing on nutrient use efficiency and reducing the emissions that it takes to produce a bushel of crop, we can maintain strong yields while working to reduce nutrient loss. Michael Buttenham is the environment and sustainability lead at Grain Farmers ofOntario.l continued from page 6 Land use efficiency in corn ↑39% in soybeans ↑17% in winter wheat ↑37% Climate impact Since 1981, Ontario’s grain farmers have reduced their climate impact. in corn ↓45% ↓18% in soybeans ↓36% in wheat Strong yield increases have led to improved land efficiency.

In-person, Delta Hotel, Guelph, Ontario Space is limited for this free event. Full agenda and registration at www.gfo.ca/womens-symposium Women’s Grain Symposium November 28 - 29, 2022 Grain Farmers of Ontario’s Women’s Grain Symposium is an event designed for our farmer-members and women in the grain sector of agriculture business. The symposium is an opportunity for meaningful networking, professional development, and leadership development. The 2022 Symposium will include discussions on grain markets, succession planning, and sustainability, and feature leadership success stories from women in agriculture. ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER 9 SPEAKERS INCLUDE • Nancy Tout; Global Institute for Food Security • Susan Stewart; The Mental Health Make-Over • Melissa McKeown; 1847 Stone Milling • Kendra Dauer; StoneX • Elaine Froese; Transition Planning • Gwen Paddock; RBC Royal Bank Sustainability & Climate

10 THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT’S proposed Clean Fuel Regulation (CFR) has undergone change and clarification since it was first introduced (as the “Clean Fuel Standard”) in 2020. Although questions about the environmental assessment of fuel feedstocks remain, Grain Farmers of Ontario’s position has shifted to one of cautious optimism. More specifically, initial clarifications on how the environmental impact of fuel feedstocks will be assessed — and by consequence, whether a given load of grain can be sold Clean Fuel Regulation update GOOD NEWS FOR ONTARIO GROWERS Matt McIntosh for fuel production — indicate Ontario grain growers should remain competitive as feedstock suppliers. WHAT IS THE CLEAN FUEL REGULATION? As described by the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change, the Clean Fuel Regulation’s purpose is to increase incentives for developing and adopting clean fuels, technologies, and processes. Part of the regulation requires suppliers of liquid fossil fuel to gradually reduce the carbon intensity from the fuels they produce and sell. The goal is to lower the carbon intensity of gasoline and diesel used in Canada by 15 per cent by 2030. The regulations establish a credit market, where each credit represents a lifecycle emission reduction of one tonne of carbon dioxide. Fuel producers and suppliers demonstrate compliance by creating or acquiring credits from other creators. There are three ways to generate credits: 1. Undertaking projects that reduce the lifecycle carbon intensity of liquid fossil fuels (e.g., carbon capture and storage, onsite renewable electricity, co-processing); 2. Supplying low carbon fuels (e.g., ethanol, biodiesel); 3. Supplying fuel or energy to advanced vehicle technology (e.g., electricity or hydrogen in vehicles). The crops required to produce low carbon fuels must also meet environmental production requirements. This requirement was an initial concern for Grain Farmers of Ontario since there appeared to be overarching restrictions on where fuel grain could be grown, among other regulatory characteristics. It was not known, for example, if land use and biodiversity criteria would bar corn produced in close proximity to waterways or buffer strips from the clean fuels market — causing concern that some growers would face a reduction in where they could produce biofuel crops. Market Development

SOME ISSUES RESOLVED According to Dana Dickerson, manager of market development, and Paul Hoekstra, vice president of strategic development at Grain Farmers of Ontario, the metrics used to build the carbon life cycle assessment model were also in question. Problems with the model were identified after details were released in the autumn of 2021, such as the difficulty in accounting for the different carbon intensities of different geographical areas. Input from Grain Farmers of Ontario helped resolve many such issues before the final regulations were released in July 2022. However, regulations for the carbon intensity of crop production remain a living document. More specifically, Dickerson says best estimates spanning different regions were not used because there is not, as yet, enough information across all regions to design a consistent, more localized approach. Instead, a single regional carbon intensity number for each crop type will be employed. Corn growers in southwestern Ontario and the adjacent parts of Michigan, for example, could operate under the same compliance classification as decided by the federal government, regardless of input or production practice differences. As more information is gathered, classification and compliance regulations can be changed and honed to better reflect regional diversity. “I think we’ve got to a place now where the legislation doesn’t preclude us from being in the market. It’s written so it’s made to be universal in nature, whether we’re talking about sugarcane or corn,” says Hoekstra. “At first, it was concerning that farmers might have to prove every load was compliant. Now the minister can grant aggregate compliance for a certain jurisdiction, like Canada, with as little administrative requirement as possible. Simply stating where I farm should be enough.” In the future, Dickerson says greater regional specificity could provide an opportunity to incentivize farmers to adopt different production practices in a way similar to carbon credits. “CFR provides a framework that the biofuel sector will use to source feedstock with the lowest carbon intensity. We need ways Ontario grain growers can take advantage of that and get credit for lowest carbon impact practices,” says Dickerson. Speaking overall — and despite lingering questions which are only likely to be answered once the CFR is fully implemented — Grain Farmers of Ontario considers these developments to be positive news. A July 7 press release says the organization is “encouraged by the changes,” particularly with the resolution of problematic land use, biodiversity, and lifecycle analysis criteria. “Ontario grows the majority of Canada’s corn and soybeans, and grain farmers are able to produce enough corn and soybeans for all market needs, whether that be food, biofuels, and export markets. We worked closely with other producer groups and industry across Canada to advocate for needed changes in the CFR that reflected the reality of growing crops for biofuels in a sustainable manner,” says Brendan Byrne, chair of Grain Farmers of Ontario. l ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER 11 OCTOBER 2022 The goal is to lower the carbon intensity of gasoline and diesel used in Canada by 15 per cent by 2030. G3smarter.ca direct access % 1 When you sell directly to G3, you’ll get full value for your grain and direct access to global markets. While evolving the way grain moves across Canada, we’ve achieved impressive numbers. Our state-of-the-art G3 Hamilton facility is dedicated to transforming your grain selling experience, utilizing smarter technology to create new delivery opportunities and faster unload times. Experience a better way to sell grain today.

12 GRAIN FARMERS OF ONTARIO identified protecting and growing markets as one of the key strategic goals in their 2021 Strategic Plan. One of the ways to achieve that goal is to advocate for and invest in growing diversified domestic markets through the development of valueadded processing and new end uses of Ontario-grown grains and oilseeds. The Grain Farmers of Ontario’s Grains Innovation Fund invested in a domestic project in 2021 that will create new opportunities for domestic soybean processing, supporting local growers and Ontario’s economy. NEW TECHNOLOGY, NEW OPPORTUNITIES In July 2022, New Protein International (NPI), Huron Commodities, and Hensall Co-operative’s Animal Nutrition Division announced a joint venture that will combine their expertise to optimize a propriety cleanProcessing capacity growth INVESTING IN NEW OPPORTUNITIES Ontario Grain Farmer label soy protein processing method. NPI will build and operate a demonstration-scale facility to test, refine, and optimize its proprietary hexane-free processing method, BioPur. Located in Sarnia, Ontario, the facility is uniquely situated between Toronto and Detroit, two North American food processing hubs, and in an agricultural area well-known for growing high-quality and abundant soybean crops. BioPur incorporates CO2 extraction and bio-based solvents in place of hexane. With investments from partners including Proteins Industries Canada and the Grain Farmers of Ontario’s Grains Innovation Fund, the $11.2 million project will help meet the growing demand for non-GMO, sustainable plantbased foods and ingredients. The NPI plant will be the first-of-its-kind processing facility in Canada to manufacture soy protein isolates, soy protein powders, textured soy proteins, and soy powders — ingredients used in consumer products such as baby formula, athletic supplements, and plantbased food products. “This exciting project… is an important step toward bringing sustainable soy protein production to Canada,” says NPI chief operating officer Mark Hamelin. Huron Commodities, a global provider of custom-sourced grain and seeds projects such as IP soybeans and non-GMO crops located in Clinton, Ontario, will provide soybean varieties for testing, while the Hensall Co-operative’s Animal Nutrition division, based in Hensall, Ontario, will test and provide feedback on the ingredients’ by-products. Beyond the pilot testing phase, NPI plans to build a full-scale commercial plant that Market Development

will help meet the growing demand for plantbased proteins — the global plant-based food market is expected to reach an approximate $250 billion in sales by 2035 — presenting a tremendous opportunity for Canadiangrown soybeans. “Consumer demands around food production are constantly evolving, and Canada’s plantbased sector needs to evolve and adapt alongside them — whether that be through the types of ingredients we use, the varieties of crops we utilize or the processing methods we develop,” Protein Industries Canada CEO Bill Greuel says. “Removing hexane from soy protein processing while adding value to the rest of the soybean crop is the kind of innovation that will help us keep pace with what consumers want while also helping Canada meet its economic goals related to plant-based food and ingredients.” Grain Farmers of Ontario’s investment through the Grain Innovation Fund helps to ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER 13 OCTOBER 2022 This article features a Grain Farmers of Ontario Market Development Fund project. An annual profitability study that includes variety bonuses and other programs offered by Prograin will prove it to you! Discover the benefits at myprograinbenefits.ca Prograin® DO THE MATH Producing IP soybeans pays off! The soy expert continued on page 14 meet the organization’s strategic objective of growing market opportunities for Ontario growers. “Over half of Ontario’s soybeans are exported,” says Paul Hoekstra, vice president of strategic development at Grain Farmers of Ontario. “Increasing innovative processing capacity here at home creates valuable new diversification opportunities for local farmers.”

14 THE GRAINS INNOVATION FUND The Grain Farmers of Ontario Grains Innovation Fund is an annual grant program designed to support organizations utilizing or marketing Ontario grains to expand market opportunities with new and innovative projects. The fund, established in 2010, has supported more than 50 industry projects spanning product development, processing pilots, marketing campaigns and product showcasing activities. The fund allocates up to $150,000 annually across all projects. Projects that meet the eligibility criteria can receive up to 60 per cent of the cost of their project up to a maximum of $50,000. A successful applicant will utilize at least 40 metric tonnes of barley, corn, oats, soybeans, or wheat per year. The most successful project applications are creative, innovative, achievable, and impactful, with a clearly articulated delivery plan. The project must also meet at least one of the following criteria: • Open new markets for Ontario grains or grain residues • Expand the use of, and demand for, Ontario grains or grain residues • Promote Ontario grains or grain residues as the best choice • Support development of novel value-added products derived from Ontario grains • Increase the value (premiums) of Ontario grains or grain residues APPLY NOW! Applications are accepted throughout October. They are then reviewed and selected by the Grain Farmers of Ontario Market Development committee, and successful project applicants are notified in December and January. Successful applicants will be required to enter into a formal agreement with Grain Farmers of Ontario. Grain Farmers of Ontario invites prospective applicants to engage with the Market Development team at an early stage to discuss their ideas and seek feedback. The application form can be accessed at www.gfo.ca/market-development/ and submitted to Dana Dickerson, manager of market development, via email at ddickerson@gfo.ca. l • Identifying and commercializing new product applications for by-products from Ontario soybean-based tofu production • Marketing an Ontario wheat-based pelletized straw for animal bedding and garden use • Promoting the influence of Ontario grains in Ontario corn-fed beef in the Japanese market • Transforming bran by-products from milling wheat into a new sustainable cat litter product • Developing and marketing an innovative new soybean-based tempeh product • Promoting upcycled grain food products through an upcycled food festival • Testing new processes for creating cleaner label food products made with Ontario grains continued from page 13 PROJECTS SUPPORTED BY THE GRAINS INNOVATION FUND

Horst Bohner, Soybean Specialist, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs PURPLE SEED STAIN(Cercospora blight) causes a distinctive purpling of soybean seed and will result in downgrading at harvest if enough seed is discoloured (photo 1). This fungal disease is also called Cercospora leaf spot since symptoms of the disease can also be found on the leaves. The incidence and severity of purple seed stain appear to be increasing in southwestern Ontario and can be a significant challenge for IP growers and fields grown for seed production. This fungus is seed-borne, so subsequent crops Purple seed stain CROP SIDE WITH... Crop side ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER 15 OCTOBER 2022 PALE TO DARK PURPLE DISCOLOURATION OF THE SEED COAT EXTENDING FROM THE HILUM ARE SYMPTOMS OF PURPLE SEED STAIN. HOWEVER, THE INFECTED SEED IS NOT NECESSARILY PURPLE, SO THE LEVEL OF INFECTION CAN BE DIFFICULT TO ASSESS VISUALLY. PHOTOS COURTESY OF HORST BOHNER. LEAF BRONZING CAUSED BY CERCOSPORA BLIGHT CAN BE FOUND ON YOUNG LEAVES IN THE UPPER CANOPY DURING SEED FILL. will be infected from diseased seed. The inoculum overwinters in soybean residue and produces air-borne spores, so it’s also spread in fields with a poor crop rotation. DISEASE SYMPTOMS During mid to late summer, leaves will show distinctive reddish or purple bronzing on the upper and lower surface of the leaf. These symptoms will bemost prevalent in the upper part of the canopy and can easily be mistaken for sun scald or ozone damage (Figure 2). Warm, wet weather during the growing season will increase the severity of the Cercospora blight. Leaf lesions may eventually join, and veins will become necrotic. Heavily infected leaves in the upper part of the canopy may drop. The petioles remain attached to the plant, and red lesions may be evident on the petioles or the stems. Pods may also show symptoms. Interestingly, plants that show the leaf symptoms of Cercospora blight do not necessarily produce purple seed. The main problem resulting from this disease is the purple stains left on the seed. This seed discolouration will cause downgrading and discounts, especially for IP varieties. The purple discolouration of the infected seed is transferred to the end product, so it can only be tolerated in small amounts. The seed is also usually smaller than healthy seed and has reduced oil and protein content. When it comes to seed production, infected seed will have lower germination and vigour. In lab studies, germination has been reduced by up to 30 per cent. Seedlings will be smaller than normal, and infected seed cotyledons may turn purple and drop prematurely. Since this disease is seed-borne, infected seed should not be kept for seed. MANAGEMENT Clean seed treated with a fungicide treatment, good crop rotation, and minimal surface soybean residue will reduce infection potential. There are also varieties with greater tolerance, so proper variety selection can be important in the management of this disease. l

16 THE GRAIN FARMERS OF ONTARIO Market Development team conducts an annual Wheat Harvest Survey by collecting samples from the four major regions of Ontario — southwest, Niagara, northwest, and east. Once these samples are received from elevators, they are graded by the Grains Analytical Test Laboratory, a joint venture between SGS Canada Inc. and Grain Farmers of Ontario, and results are updated and posted online biweekly on the Market Development section of the Grain Farmers of Ontario website. The survey and testing results are an important resource for members of the industry, including farmermembers, elevators, and millers. THE 2022 WHEAT CROP OUTLOOK This year's winter wheat crop is smaller than average due to the delayed soybean harvest and wet planting conditions during last fall's harvest. According to Statistics Canada, 930,300 acres of winter wheat were seeded in autumn 2021 compared to 1,122,800 acres seeded in 2020. Despite challenging and, in some cases, late planting conditions, initial results from the 2022 Wheat Harvest Survey have indicated very good quality, with over 99 per cent of samples grading at a No. 2 or above. Samples this year have shown high test weights with moisture, protein and falling number all within ideal ranges. The first few rounds of samples were harvested before the end of July when most of the province experienced extreme heat and dry weather conditions. The dry conditions led to some kernels Ontario’s wheat quality ANNUAL SURVEY PROVIDES INDUSTRY INSIGHT Hayley Micallef becoming 'weathered' with the bran appearing lighter in colour. Luckily, this was a minor quality factor and did not cause downgrading below a Grade 2. Later in the season, the province had several days of rainfall pushing moisture percentages in between the 17 - 19 per cent range, but no other major issues were detected in the samples received early in the survey. MILLERS AND THE WHEAT HARVEST SURVEY Once all samples are graded, composites of each class are formed for additional testing. The experts at the Grains Analytical Testing Laboratory perform multiple complex tests that measure different quality indexes such as starch damage, gluten, and baking quality, Market Development

among other analysis methods. Millers and end users use the Wheat Harvest Survey and the composites that go along with it for three reasons: 1. To support their insight into the level of quality to expect with the harvested crop, especially as crops change from old to new crop quite quickly. 2. To compare against previous years' quality to determine necessary modifications required by bakers. Millers need to be able to advise their clients on any substantive quality changes and adapt their guidance to help customers to achieve their baking goals. Millers need to prepare the bakers for any changes, so they are ready for when the flour is received. 3. The survey divides the province into four different regions for several reasons — one being that millers need to know where to buy what they need. There is a difference in quality across regions that are affected by different grading factors, diseases, etc., so millers need to establish a procurement plan. The work on the Wheat Harvest Survey allows us to open a dialogue on the quality of the new crop for both international and domestic customers. Every year, the Market Development team and SGS operations manager Paolo Santangelo participate in inbound and outbound trade missions, giving new and existing customers confidence and encouragement for sourcing wheat from Ontario farms. We use data from the survey to help explain changes between old and new crop wheat and the impact that will have on end users. Millers anticipate changes every year, as they are aware that many different factors such as weather and crop management can impact the quality of the grain year after year. These meetings allow us to support them and continue to ensure we tell the story of Ontario's quality. GRAIN FARMERS OF ONTARIO'S USE OF THE SURVEY The Wheat Harvest Survey also gives Grain Farmers of Ontario key data points which allow us to track the quality year over year in each of the four regions. The 2022 season started with great quality, so Grain Farmers of Ontario have not had to rely on the survey to address issues. In other years, however, the survey allows us to see where issues are within the different regions and how we can address them with customers, variety development and agronomists. Hayley Micallef is the market development coordinator at Grain Farmers of Ontario. l ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER 17 OCTOBER 2022 This article features a Grain Farmers of Ontario Market Development Fund project. Trait Stewardship Responsibilities Notice to Farmers Bayer is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). Bayer products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with Bayer’s Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. These products have been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from these products can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move material containing biotech traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. Growers should talk to their grain handler or product purchaser to confirm their buying position for these products. Excellence Through Stewardship® is a registered trademark of Excellence Through Stewardship. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. It is a violation of federal law to use any pesticide product other than in accordancewith its labeling. NOT ALL formulations of dicamba or glyphosate are approved for in-crop use with products with Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans. NOT ALL formulations of dicamba, glyphosate or glufosinate are approved for in-crop use with products with XtendFlex® Technology. ONLY USE FORMULATIONS THAT ARE SPECIFICALLY LABELLED AND APPROVED FOR SUCH USES. Contact the Pest Management Regulatory Agency with any questions about the approval status of dicamba herbicide products for in-crop use with Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans or products with XtendFlex® Technology. Roundup Ready® Technology contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate. Roundup Ready® 2 Technology contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate. Products with XtendFlex® Technology contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate, glufosinate and dicamba. Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate and dicamba. Glyphosate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glyphosate. Dicamba will kill crops that are not tolerant to dicamba. Glufosinate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glufosinate. Contact your Bayer retailer, refer to the Bayer Technology Use Guide, or call the technical support line at 1-888-283-6847 for recommended Roundup Ready® Xtend Crop System weed control programs. Insect control technology provided by Vip3A is utilized under license from Syngenta Crop Protection AG. Acceleron®, Bayer, Bayer Cross, BioRise™, BUTEO™, BUTEO®, EverGol®, Prosper®, RIB Complete®, Roundup Ready 2 Xtend®, Roundup Ready 2 Yield®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Xtend®, SmartStax®, Trecepta®, TruFlex™, VaporGrip®, VT Double PRO®, XtendFlex® and XtendiMax® are trademarks of Bayer Group. Used under license. LibertyLink and the Water Droplet Design are trademarks of BASF. Used under license. Agrisure Viptera® is a registered trademarks of a Syngenta group company. LibertyLink® and the Water Droplet Design are trademarks of BASF. Used under license. Herculex® is a registered trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC. Used under license. 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18 GRAIN FARMERS OF ONTARIO, the Ontario Agri Business Association (OABA), and the Ontario Canola Growers have recently updated the recommended industry Code of Practice for trade in barley, canola, corn, oats, and wheat in Ontario. The Code of Practice, which must be posted at each licensed country or terminal elevator, specifies how deliveries to country or terminal elevators will be inspected and serves as a framework on how disputes should be addressed. IDENTIFIED COMMODITIES The updated code establishes responsibilities for farmers delivering and elevators receiving grain. It reaffirms that barley, corn, canola, oats, and wheat (identified commodities) are to be inspected at delivery on the basis of the grades established under the Canada Grain Act. Elevators and operators are expected to have the necessary equipment, calibration charts, and trained personnel to ensure that results are consistent with the standards set by the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC). After the grain has been inspected, the farmer can request the grade, dockage, condition, and moisture that was assigned to the load. At the time of delivery, a sample of grain, no less than 1 kg in weight, will be taken and retained for a period of 24 hours. If a dispute is initiated, the sample will then be sent to a third-party lab or the CGC for analysis. The Code also specifies how the costs associated with testing will be handled, with the producer and elevator sharing the cost of forwarding the grain sample, and the fees associated with testing the sample the responsibility of the party found to be in error. For other quality commercial specifications outside of the CGC standards, such as falling number and DON, the agreed contract terms will prevail. If testing is conducted by the elevator operator at the time of delivery and the delivery agent wishes to initiate a dispute, a sample can be sent to a third-party for assessment and the dispute resolution process followed. SOYBEANS Soybeans are covered under the Agreement for the Marketing of the Ontario soybean crop which was agreed upon in 2016. The agreement applies to farmer deliveries of soybeans and allows for market forces to dictate the costs associated with drying and handling soybeans. Under the terms of the agreement, charges for cleaning and handling, and drying charges/moisture discounts are to be agreed upon by the farmer and the dealer through competitive market forces prior to delivery. Disputes can be addressed by forwarding a sample to a CGC inspector or another mutually agreed-upon third party inspector. The Agreement specifies how expenses related to inspection will be allocated between the parties. INDUSTRY COLLABORATION Grain Farmers of Ontario has worked closely with industry partners to update the Code of Practice. “It’s important that farmers and elevator operators have a clear, concise, and detailed framework that outlines how their crops will be assessed and graded,” says Dana Dickerson, manager of market development at Grain Farmers of Ontario. “We also want to ensure that any disputes are handled quickly, efficiently, and transparently.” “There have been significant changes to the grain industry since the Code of Practice was first established. Ontario Agri Business Association was pleased to work with Grain Farmers of Ontario and Ontario Canola Growers to review and update this document to ensure it properly reflects current conditions and will be an important tool for both elevators and producers,” says Ron Campbell, operations and member services manager at OABA. The updated Code of Practice and 2022 soybean marketing Agreement can be found online at www.gfo.ca/marketing. l Ontario Grain Farmer Code of practice updated INDUSTRY COLLABORATES TO REFRESH STANDARDS Industry News

CABEF is a registered charity (#828593731RR0001). For more information on all registered charities in Canada under the Income Tax Act , please visit Canada Revenue Agency www.cra-arc.gc.ca/charities. Pathways to Agri-Food Scholarships CONGRATULATIONS! The next generation of Canadian agricultural leaders is growing, and CABEF is proud to support them. Congratulations to these exceptional students who have won $2,500 CABEF scholarships. Based on their applications, the future of the agriculture industry is in great hands. CABEF awards seven $2,500 scholarships annually to students entering or currently pursuing an agricultural related program at a Canadian college, university or trade school. Apply at cabef.org by April 30th, 2023 @CABEFoundation @CABEF2022 Jill Lockerby Hamilton, PEI Mariah Maurer Grenfell, SK Seanna Wengryn Edmonton, AB Annalise Steadman Victoria, BC Devin Keenan Cleveland, QC Emily Bieman Belgrave, ON Emily Robb Brandon, MB

20 An update on Grain Farmers of Ontario news and events 2022 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Grain Farmers of Ontario held its Annual General Meeting on September 13 at the Craigowan Golf Club in Woodstock. The financial statements for the 2021 - 2022 fiscal year (June – May) were presented by the auditors, RLB LLP, at the meeting. The financial statements are included immediately following this newsletter for the easy reference of all farmer-members. The financial statements can also be found in the 2022 Annual Report, available online at www.gfo.ca/about. MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS Ontario voters will go to the polls on Monday, October 24, 2022, to elect their municipal leaders and school board trustees. Municipal elections are held every four years in Ontario. Grain Farmers of Ontario encourages our farmer-members to engage with local candidates to ensure that agricultural issues are top-of-mind when new municipal governments are formed. As municipalities deal with more localized matters, each community will have differing priorities, and candidates will have varying levels of understanding of the importance of agriculture to their local economy. By taking some time to talk to candidates about the issues that are important to you as an Ontario grain farmer, you can help bring awareness to the important local agricultural issues in your community. Grain Farmers of Ontario has a number of resources that you can share with municipal candidates to help them learn about grain farming and its importance to Ontario’s economy: • Ontario Grain Farming 101 is a 10-video series that introduces viewers to the various aspects of the Ontario grain and oilseed industry. Find it at www.gfo.ca/ research/farming101. • www.GrainforGood.ca tells Ontario’s sustainability story. • www.GoodinEveryGrain.ca has a wealth of information about how grains are grown, what they are used for, and how they impact our everyday life. Specific information on when, where, and how to vote will vary depending upon your local municipality, and information can be found by visiting your municipality’s website or contacting their office. General information about municipal elections, including information on how to register to vote, updating your personal information, and identification requirements to vote, can be found at www.ontario.ca/page/municipalelections. WOMEN’S GRAIN SYMPOSIUM Join us November 28 - 29 for the Grain Farmers of Ontario’s annual Women’s Grain Symposium. The event will be held in person at the Delta Hotel and Conference Centre. The agenda will feature a varied program, including guest speakers, leadership training, and networking opportunities for women who are farmer-members or work in the grain and oilseed industry. Registration is free. Interested participants can find more information and registration forms by visiting www.gfo.ca/womens-symposium or by contacting Rachel Telford, manager of member services, at rtelford@gfo.ca. GRAIN DISCOVERY ZONE As the 2022 fair and festival season comes to a close, the Grain Discovery Zone is wrapping up another year of travelling across the province to help consumers learn about grains and grain farming. The Grain Discovery Zone visited more than 20 events in 2022, crisscrossing the province from Leamington in the southwest to Vankleek Hill in eastern Ontario. FROM THE CHAIR A Q&A with Brendan Byrne, chair of Grain Farmers of Ontario. What is Grain Farmers of Ontario doing to open up new markets for Canadian grains and oilseeds? There are a number of initiatives at Grain Farmers of Ontario that specifically focus on growing and developing existing markets and opening doors for Ontario grain in new markets. After the shift in thinking that came during the lockdowns and travel restrictions, I am very happy to say that we will be and have been much more active on trade missions and other market access activities. In August of this year, we attended and presented at the International Oilseed Producers Dialogue, where we learned about the issues impacting oilseed growers from every corner of the world and were able to share numbers and learn from each other. In September we participated in trade missions centred around Central and Latin America, which are incredibly important developing markets for Ontario grain. With harvest in full swing, I want to wish everyone a safe and bountiful fall. Work safe and please contact me or the office with any concerns that may arise. • Do you have a question for our chair? Email GrainTALK@gfo.ca.

UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH GRAIN FARMERS OF ONTARIO CO-OP EXPERIENCE Ryan Gill completed a co-op placement in the Grain Farmers of Ontario Market Development department as a market development assistant in the summer of 2022. Gill is entering his fourth year of the Food and Agriculture Business Co-op program at the University of Guelph. Gill’s previous co-op placement was at London Agricultural Commodities as a junior grain trader. That placement furthered his interest in grain markets, utilization and trade, which led to him applying for a co-op placement with the Grain Farmers of Ontario Market Development team. During his four-month co-op term, Gill engaged with a range of industry stakeholders and attended numerous events. “From car parts to crayons and more, Ontario grain producers can truly be proud of the impact they have on society, in addition to feeding our growing world! I am very appreciative to receive the opportunity to work alongside the great staff at Grain Farmers of Ontario and further my passion for agriculture over these past several months,” says Gill. In addition to his university studies, Gill started a sheep farm with his twin brother, where they have fifty ewes on an accelerated lambing program and care for a broiler chicken operation. MARKET COMMENTARY by Philip Shaw Ontario grain prices have increased since the lows of July. In the United States, the August United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) report still pegged corn at 176.4 bushels per acre, and soybeans at a very healthy 51.5 bushels per acre. Late summer weather has called into question the corn estimates as hot and dry weather have impacted parts of the U.S. corn belt. With strong demand still apparent and drought in key growing areas of the world, the grain futures market has responded accordingly. In Ontario, the Canadian dollar fluttering in the 77 cent U.S. level has helped maintain cash grain prices. The varied nature of drought across the province has produced a patchwork of yield potential, higher in the east, possibly lower in the southwest. FARMER WELLNESS Farmers have a demanding career with a unique set of stressors that, if not managed, can negatively impact their mental health and farm businesses. Fortunately, in Ontario and across Canada, many organizations focused on mental health in agriculture provide resources and support for our farm communities. One of those organizations is the National Farmer Mental Health Alliance. This group is a team of experienced psychotherapists and life coaches with lived agriculture experience. They understand the challenges of farming and the importance of having access to mental health services and support tailored to farmers, farm families, and veterinarians. Their services include: • Psychotherapy– They will connect you with a therapist that is a farmer or part of a farm family. • Workshops– They offer psychoeducational workshops on topics designed to help improve the mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being of farmers and farm families. • Training– They advocate for 'Agriculture Informed Therapy' by creating a certified, comprehensive training for therapists. • Ag Organizations – have multipronged service packages for agriculture organizations to better meet the mental health needs of their members. Visit www.nfmha.ca to learn more and access these resources. ANNUAL DISTRICT MEETINGS Grain Farmers of Ontario is beginning to plan for the 2023 January District Grain Committee Meetings. Be sure to check our website, www.gfo.ca, for updates on the date and location of your district’s meeting. Details will also be published in the GrainTALK Newsletter in upcoming issues of the Ontario Grain Farmer magazine as they are finalized. The Annual District Meetings are called to elect voting delegates and directors for the coming year. Updates on the organization and grain industry issues are also provided at these meetings. All barley, corn, oat, soybean, and wheat farmers are welcome and encouraged to attend. 21 Discover other ways to join the GrainTALK conversation: E-News, Webinars, Podcasts, Radio, Research Days, and events. Visit www.gfo.ca/ GrainTALK. ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER OCTOBER 2022