Ontario Grain Farmer September 2022

www.OntarioGrainFarmer.ca Publ ished by Alternative residue management HURON COUNTY FARMERS GETTING GREAT RESULTS HARVEST PREPARATION SEPTEMBER 2022

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6 ON THE COVER Alternative residue management Lois Harris HURON COUNTY FARMERS GETTING GREAT RESULTS From the CEO’s desk RISKS AND REWARDS 4 Improving Ontario oats Rebecca Hannam 10 Accurate DON testing Matt McIntosh 13 Business side Conversations with business experts 12 GrainTALK newsletter An update on Grain Farmers of Ontario news and events 18 Respect the dangers Rachel Telford 14 Crop side Agronomic information from crop specialists 26 Strobilurin fungicides Treena Hein 16 Investing in oats Ontario Grain Farmer 22 Sandhill cranes Mary Feldskov 27 Drought conditions Matt McIntosh 30 Good in Every Grain Updates on our campaign 34 Cover photo courtesy of Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food andRural Affairs. SEPTEMBER 2022 volume 13, number 9 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMERis published 9 times a year (December/January, February, March, April/May, June/July, August, September, October, and November) through Grain Farmers of Ontario. Distribution is to all Ontario barley, corn, oat, soybean, and wheat farmer-members. Associate Membership Subscription available upon request. Views and opinions expressed in this magazine are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the policies of Grain Farmers of Ontario. Seek professional advice before undertaking any recommendations or suggestions presented in this magazine. PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT NO. 40065283. Return undeliverable items to Grain Farmers of Ontario, 679 Southgate Drive, Guelph, ON N1G 4S2. © Grain Farmers of Ontario all rights reserved. Publisher: Grain Farmers of Ontario, Phone: 1-800-265-0550, Website: www.gfo.ca; Managing Editor: Mary Feldskov; Production Co-ordinator: Kim Ratz; Advertising Sales: Joanne Tichborne Agricultural climate solutions Jeanine Moyer 24

and one of the group's projects has recently come to fruition. A new grinder technology has been developed to improve the accuracy of the test for DON at the elevator — you can read more about this grinder on page 13 of this edition of the Ontario Grain Farmer. The grinder will be on display at the Grain Farmers of Ontario booth at Canada's Outdoor Farm Show September 13 - 15. Despite all the risks that are associated with farming, there can also be great rewards. During times of global instability, Canadian farmers are producing high-quality and environmentally sustainable grains and oilseeds to help meet the global demand for food — the world is looking for more grain, and we can provide it. l Risks and rewards ON THE HEELS of the summer barley, oat, and wheat harvest, Ontario's farmers are preparing to harvest corn and soybeans — and everyone is anxious to see the result of the 2022 growing season. This past spring, farmers made one of the most significant and riskiest investments ever in planting a crop due to supply chain issues, labour shortages, uncertain supply and demonstrably higher fertilizer costs due to tariffs on Russian product, and inflationary pressures. While no one has a crystal ball to predict the outcome, we hope all that risk will come with a reward this harvest season. Behind the scenes, the staff and Board of Directors of Grain Farmers of Ontario have continued to work towards solutions to the important issues that our farmer-members face. We have continued to advocate to the federal government around the fertilizer issue; we've been clear that our farmer-members shouldn't bear the cost of Russian sanctions, that producers should be compensated, and that the 2023 growing season may be in jeopardy if the ongoing fertilizer issues are not addressed. Canada is the only G7 nation to impose tariffs on Russian fertilizer, and we recognize that this places undue risk on Ontario farmers who compete with farmers worldwide. This past growing season has been full of stressors for farmers — on top of fertilizer and supply issues, farmers will face the usual issues around unpredictable weather, machinery breakdowns, and weeds, pests, and disease. Research has shown us that farmers are at higher risk for anxiety, depression, and other mental health concerns relative to the general population. So, we've been working to amplify the message about farmer wellness. This edition of the Ontario Grain Farmer includes some tips for managing stress during harvest. If you or someone you know is struggling, mental health professionals can offer support through the new Farmer Wellness Initiative that is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The next Agricultural Policy Framework is currently being negotiated. This summer, federal, provincial, and territorial Ministers of Agriculture met to discuss the next five-year deal, set to begin in April 2023. Grain Farmers of Ontario is making our farmer-members voices heard at these meetings, and we are advocating for changes to business risk management programs that reflect the risks inherent in farming to ensure financial stability and environmental sustainability in our industry. Looking back a few years, the 2018 harvest was challenging for Ontario's farmers due to high levels of DON in much of the corn crop. To help address future DON risks to our farmer-members, Grain Farmers of Ontario has been part of a DON working group — Crosby Devitt, CEO, Grain Farmers of Ontario From the CEO’s desk 4

S:7.125" S:8.865" THE RIGHT SEED, 16 SEASONS IN A ROW. You might get about 40 chances to grow your yield of dreams, and with each passing season you learn a little bit more about how to make your next one the biggest yet. So when it comes time to choose a seed, choose the one with over a century’s worth of seasons under its belt. Because when you’re making every season count, you need a seed you can count on. THE SEED FOR EVERY SEASON Bayer is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). Bayer products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with Bayer’s Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. These products have been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from these products can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move material containing biotech traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. Growers should talk to their grain handler or product purchaser to confirm their buying position for these products. Excellence Through Stewardship® is a registered trademark of Excellence Through Stewardship. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. It is a violation of federal law to use any pesticide product other than in accordance with its labeling. NOT ALL formulations of dicamba or glyphosate are approved for in-crop use with products with Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans. ONLY USE FORMULATIONS THAT ARE SPECIFICALLY LABELLED AND APPROVED FOR SUCH USES. Contact the Pest Management Regulatory Agency with any questions about the approval status of dicamba herbicide products for in-crop use with Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans or products with XtendFlex® Technology. Roundup Ready® 2 Technology contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate. Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate and dicamba. Products with XtendFlex® Technology contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate, glufosinate and dicamba. Glyphosate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glyphosate. Dicamba will kill crops that are not tolerant to dicamba. Glufosinate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glufosinate. Contact your local crop protection dealer or call the technical support line at 1-888-283-6847 for recommended Roundup Ready® Xtend Crop System weed control programs. Insect control technology provided by Vip3A is utilized under license from Syngenta Crop Protection AG. Bayer, Bayer Cross, DEKALB and Design®, DEKALB®, RIB Complete®, Roundup Ready 2 Technology and Design™, Roundup Ready 2 Xtend®, Roundup Ready 2 Yield®, Roundup Ready®, SmartStax®, Trecepta® and VT Double PRO® are trademarks of Bayer Group. Agrisure Viptera® is a registered trademark of a Syngenta group company. LibertyLink® and the Water Droplet Design are trademarks of BASF. Used under license. Herculex® is a registered trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC. Used under license. ©2022 Bayer Group. All rights reserved.

Cover story 6 A NEW SYSTEMfor managing crop residue that doesn’t involve tillage is one of the most innovative advances in the 42 years Ian McDonald has been working in field crop research. “I’ve seen a lot of stuff in my time, but I’ve never been as excited as I have been with Lawrence and Steve’s work with biostrips and residue clearing in terms of making significant change in the system as a whole,” says the crop innovation specialist in the Field Crops Unit at the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Lawrence Hogan and Steve Howard are brothers who have been no-till farming since the 1980s. They currently have 900 acres of corn, soybeans, and winter wheat in Huron County. HOW IT WORKS When they plan to plant soybeans after corn, they first make sure the residue is in the right condition in the fall. They use Calmer chopping rolls on the corn head and ensure the residue is spread evenly across the field. “We find that soybean planting goes better after corn, and even that fall wheat planting goes better after soybeans because the corn stalk residue pieces are smaller,” says Hogan. In the spring, they use a row clearer that pushes the residue back against rows of standing corn stalks, exposing a 14-inch strip of bare soil, which is where they plant twinrow soybeans. “We’re not doing any tillage, and we use the row clearer two days ahead of planting, which means the soil gets dry enough to plant,” says Hogan. He adds that they don’t use this method on every field all the time — only when they feel it’s necessary when the soil is wetter than it should be, and there’s a potential for slug damage to the soybeans. They plant twin-row soybeans using either a seed drill with 7 1/2 inch twins or a corn planter with 10-inch twins centred on 30 inches. “We’re very happy with the row clearer,” says Hogan, adding that, at harvest, they strive to leave 14-inch corn stalks standing. “We have always tried to keep the corn header as high as possible to leave tall stalks, which reduces residue matting that can happen with the Calmers rolls if the head cuts too low — it also helps the soil to dry in spring.” The 16-row, 40-foot clearer was relatively inexpensive — about $32,000 three years ago. Hogan first bought an 8-row clearer in 2016 from Quebec after seeing it at the Outdoor Farm Show in Woodstock about eight or 10 years ago. The current clearer is pulled by a 90-horsepower tractor at halfthrottle, so fuel consumption is minimal. SYSTEM ADVANTAGES The brothers have used this method for about five years for soybeans after corn. In the spring of 2020, they didn’t use the row clearer in any fields because the soil was dry. In some years, when soybean harvest was late and damp, they’ve also had to Phoenix harrow the remaining corn residue that was cleared in the spring to enable the soil to dry out ahead of wheat planting. “You have to constantly pay attention to field conditions and be ready to change your plan,” Hogan says, noting that pretty much everything in farming can change on a dime, and they have to be prepared to rapidly adapt throughout the season to optimize the system. Their soybean yields have consistently been above the county average and, in two out of the past five years, reached 70 bushels an acre. Another advantage of the Hogan-Howard system is that it maintains cover on the land over the winter, reducing water and wind erosion. It also helps keep the soil healthy. “We have to nurture the soil so it will nurture us,” says McDonald, pointing out that soil is a living ecosystem and that its physical, chemical, and biological needs must be met to stay productive. Alternative residue management HURON COUNTY FARMERS GETTING GREAT RESULTS Lois Harris continued on page 8 • Managing residue plays a major role in Lawrence Hogan and Steve Howard’s no-till success. • When planting soybeans after corn, they make sure the residue is in the right condition in the fall by evenly spreading it across the field. • They leave tall stalks — about 14 inches — to reduce residue matting. • This method also maintains cover on the land over winter, reducing water and wind erosion. • In the spring, they use a row clearer that pushes the residue back against the row of standing corn stalks to expose bare soil. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW


He also says there’s a dynamic relationship between the art and science of farming. “Science gives you the tools, and the art is in how you make the system function,” he says, adding that the goal for productive crops should be to optimize the system so that the most profit can be gleaned from the least inputs while protecting and enhancing the soil ecosystem. While Hogan concedes the row clearing puts an extra step in the process for no-tillers, he says it’s been better than their past experience with traditional tillage, in which fields were worked in the fall and cultivated two or more or more times in the spring. 8 “Those three passes cost-wise would be at least six times more costly than running the row clearer once,” he says. Another alternative to fall tillage for residue management or spring row clearing, according to McDonald, is a rapid, shallow till in the spring, when the days are warmer, and the residue is more brittle and oxidized from overwintering. “Tillage was originally developed as a weed control system, and its use for seedbed preparation came later,” he says. “Now, we really don’t need a lot of tillage for seedbed preparation, but we can use it to manage the previous crop residue before planting the next crop.” McDonald believes the row clearing system is a superior choice and that using this method supports no-till farming while resolving the challenge of managing substantial corn residue after harvest and the trash issues that often affect soybean early emergence and growth the next spring. At the end of the day, he says, the system and the choices made should not be about bushels per acre but about dollars of profit per acre, with special attention paid to protecting and enhancing the soil platform. As he summarized in an article in CropTalk, “This system is worth thinking about if your goal is lower costs, improved soil management and continuing to achieve top yields!” l USING A ROW CLEANER SUPPORTS NO-TILL FARMING WHILE RESOLVING THE CHALLENGE OF MANAGING SUBSTANTIAL CORN RESIDUE AFTER HARVEST. PHOTO COURTESY OF ONTARIO MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND RURAL AFFAIRS. continued from page 6

ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER 9 SEPTEMBER 2022 Come see it in action! This grinder is designed and manufactured in Ontario to improve the grain testing and receiving process for producers, elevators, and grain handlers throughout North America and the world. If you are concerned about how your crop is tested for DON, ask your elevator to use a 2 kg ground sample, mix thoroughly, then take a sub-sample. Did you know there is a DON working coalition committed to finding possible solutions? The group has: • Looked at variability in ground corn sampling • Learned the ideal sample sizes • Looked at best practices for sampling and testing Current grinders on the market have limited capabilities. A new commercial grinder was designed to meet the grain industry's needs, with benefits such as: • Grinds corn up to 28 per cent moisture quickly and efficiently • Improved consistency in DON testing results • Increased grinding capacity and more representative test results • Standardized finer grind size for DON extraction efficiency • More efficient sample preparation • Less dust and noise, vacuum nozzle insert for dust capture • Easier and more complete cleanout to reduce carry-over • High level of safety (CSA approved) • Can be used on a variety of crops such as barley, soybeans, wheat, and pulses • Food-safe design and components Visit the Grain Farmers of Ontario booth in seed alley at Canada's Outdoor Farm Show to learn more. New developments in DON testing

10 LODGING IS Amajor issue in the production of milled oats, and the entire value chain agrees it's an area that needs attention. A University of Guelph study offers insight into how agronomic management practices can improve yield and standability. Joshua Nasielski, assistant professor in the department of plant agriculture, led five experiments at the Ontario Crop Research Centres in New Liskeard and Winchester in 2020 and 2021. "We have four site-years of data, and we ran the statistics in a rigorous way, so I'm really confident about the conclusions we can draw," he says. The study evaluated changes in row spacing, seeding depth, seeding rate, nitrogen applications and the use of a plant growth regulator against a standard management protocol. Three oat varieties with different lodging susceptibility were grown — Camden, Nicolas and Nice. NARROW ROWS BOOST YIELD Researchers decreased typical row spacing from seven inches in New Liskeard and seven and a half inches in Winchester to five-inch spacings in both locations. By maintaining the same seed rate but narrowing the rows, the theory is that each plant has more room to grow a wider root structure, making it likely to have better standability. In every variety, site, and year, narrower row spacing increased yield by an average of 11 bushels per acre without increasing lodging. The yield increases varied from five to 17 bushels per acre, depending on the site and year. "When you consider that average oat yields in Ontario are about 80 bushels per acre, an 11-bushel increase is a huge benefit," says Nasielski. He was surprised by how significantly row spacing impacted yield and how consistent the results were. While most cereals in Ontario are planted in 7.5-inch rows to accommodate planting soybeans in 15-inch rows with the same seed drill, the research suggests that taking the time to reset the drill to narrow rows will increase net returns. Improving Ontario oats STRATEGIES FOR BETTER YIELD AND STANDABILITY Rebecca Hannam Research NARROWING ROWS TO IMPROVE ROOT STRENGTH AND INCREASE YIELD. LEFT: STANDARD = 7.5”; RIGHT: NARROW = 5”. PHOTO COURTESY OF JOSH NASIELSKI.

NO SHALLOW SEEDS The study also compared seeding depths of one, two, and three inches. While depth did not impact yield in either year, lodging increased in oats planted shallower than one inch. "To have a lodging resistant oat, you want crown roots that are deep and wide," Nasielski says, meaning lodging increases when crown roots are shallow. He recommends setting the drill slightly deeper than one inch so that even the seeds that are shallower than average are planted one inch deep. Nasielski knows some farmers are concerned about deeper seeding delaying emergence, but the research shows that the delay does not translate into a yield loss. There was no yield penalty to seeding as deep as 2.5 inches. MAINTAIN SEED RATES The standard seeding rate for the study was 300 seeds per square metre. The seeding rate experiment compared 150, 300, and 400 seeds per square metre. While Nasielski knows of agronomists in the United Kingdom who recommend higher seeding rates to reduce lodging, he found the opposite true. The half-rate reduced lodging in some cases but had variable yield results. Since the findings were inconsistent, he encourages growers to stick with the standard seeding rate or the rate they find works for their location. LIMITED N BENEFIT While the recommended nitrogen rate for oats in Ontario is 32 to 68 pounds per acre, researchers wanted to determine what happens when the rate is increased, and applications are split. The standard nitrogen rate in the study was 90 kilograms per hectare (80 pounds per acre), split between 60 kilograms pre-plant and 30 kilograms at growth stage (GS) 39 or once the flag leaf is fully unrolled. The experiment tested full application preplant, full application in-season, 60 kilograms pre-plant and 30 kilograms in-season, and 30 kilograms pre-plant and 60 kilograms inseason. The trials tested two in-season timings, GS 32 when the second node is detectable and GS 60 just after head emergence. Application at GS 60 is not recommended. No significant differences were observed in yield or lodging among the different trials. Although the ideal nitrogen rate depends on location, Nasielski saw no real benefit to higher rates. "The typical rates seem to be good enough, especially since yields are limited by temperature more than any other factor," he says. SOMETIMES A PGR PAYS The last experiment involved growing oats at five different nitrogen rates up to 160 pounds per acre, with and without Syngenta's plant growth regulator (PGR) Moddus applied at GS 30 to 32. Lodging increased with more nitrogen, but the increase in lodging was lower with Moddus. The PGR reduced plant height by an average of eight centimetres but had little effect on yield. "If you're going to push nitrogen rates on an oat crop, it pays to have a PGR," says Nasielski. While most growers will find this conclusion intuitive, he appreciates confirming the evidence. NEXT STEPS This year Nasielski has partnered with three farmers in northern Ontario to test key findings on a field scale. An eight-acre field is being used to compare yield and lodging when oats are planted at five and seven-inch row spacings and soybeans at 10 and 14-inch row spacings. Farmers are also testing the timing of PGR application and its impact on oat straw. "We want to know if you are better off targeting the early or late part of the recommended application window," Nasielski says. "We're also looking at the effect of temperature at application timing, and we want to understand the whole data set to find out how we can get a more consistent effect." This research is funded by Grain Farmers of Ontario, the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs through the Ontario Agri-Food Innovation Alliance, PepsiCo (which owns Quaker Oats), and Syngenta. PepsiCo funding was not used for this project's plant growth regulator portion. l ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER 11 SEPTEMBER 2022 This article features research supported by Grain Farmers of Ontario.

12 (J.M.) HOW DO YOU DEFINE ‘FAIR’ WHEN IT COMES TO SUCCESSION PLANNING? (D.W.) Every farm family defines fairness differently, and I think it comes down to values and traditions for most families. For parents or the older generation involved in succession, it is often a balancing act between what the family views as affordable and how they want to support their children to help them realize their goals or needs. In my experience, everyone in the family seems to have some connection to the farm, whether they are taking over the farm or are ‘non-farming’ members and haven’t been involved in the day-to-day operations for years. Farm families understand what it means to put in sweat equity and tend to feel a deeper loyalty to ensure it stays in the family rather than selling it and splitting it for cash. Many non-farming siblings understand that no one is likely to get cash and that their siblings involved in the farm succession may be getting a chance to own the farm, but they also understand the amount of work, risk, and commitment that goes into managing the farm business. I always advise families to participate in a values exercise to determine how and when they want to help their children – now, along the way, and at the end. This usually clarifies the milestones and when they would like to support their children, like education, weddings, first homes, etc. HOW DO YOU ADVISE FARM FAMILIES TO APPROACH THE TOPIC OF FAIRNESS? I think the desire to keep everything ‘fair’ is one of the major roadblocks for families when starting the succession journey. In some cases, they may already have concerns about entitlement or fear of starting the conversation with family members. Open and honest communication is the first step. Start by asking your kids what they think is fair. Fairness will be different for each family member, so take the time to talk about what it means to your family and how you define it in relation to your values and traditions. And remember, fair doesn’t always mean equal. I don’t recommend parents short-change themselves and give up their lifestyle for their kids to be ‘fair.’ Sometimes we see families willing to give up lifestyle goals, like travel, or their time, to make it easier for the next generation. Families should never lose sight of how mom and dad, or previous generations, acquired the farm and what values they followed to help them succeed. ANY ADVICE FOR FAMILIES TRYING TO KEEP THEIR FARM TRANSITION ‘FAIR’ FOR EVERYONE? Since everyone has their own definition of fairness, it’s always best to bring in a third-party advisor to help. Trust and follow an advisor’s process to help your family identify values, determine the correct farm transfer value (or sweet spot), and balance all the necessary but important succession decisions. Make sure everyone is involved in the process, so there are no surprises. And be realistic — understand your farm’s financial situation, what the exiting generation needs to maintain their desired lifestyle, and what the farm business can afford to pay, take on new debt, or cash flow the succession plan. Most importantly, be open and honest. I find that unpleasant surprises can happen if one generation keeps their cards close to their chest and doesn’t share the values of assets, debts, etc. The families I work with who are open about their farm business, goals, and financials seem to deal with the (sometimes) awkward and uncomfortable situations a lot better. HAVE RISING FARMLAND VALUES AND INTEREST RATES CREATED ADDITIONAL CHALLENGES? Yes. Higher values have only made the gap in creating equality more difficult for some. While farm families have the benefit of choosing the transfer value of their business, if they choose too low, it can throw everything out of balance for everyone. If the value is too high, the farm may attract more tax, making it even more difficult for the successor to buy out mom and dad, pay down current debt, and find a way to grow the farm. l Jeanine Moyer Darrell Wade, Founder & Advisor, Farm Life Financial farmlifefinancial.ca The farm transition BUSINESS SIDE WITH... Business side

Bringing crops to Eastern Canada’s largest outdoor farm show gives you the opportunity to view a variety of crop plots to help inform your input decisions for the next growing season. September 13, 14 & 15, 2022 outdoorfarmshow.com

14 WHEN THE FARMis both a home and a place of business, farmers need to be vigilant to keep their families and workers safe. During the rush of harvest time, it is important to take the time needed to operate equipment safely and use safe practices around flowing grain. Sheila James, a health and safety consultant with Workplace Safety & Prevention Services (WSPS), wants farmers to keep two things top of mind this fall. “A farmer needs to know the danger of flowing grain so that you can advise your family and your workers of those dangers, and you need to know how to rescue someone that is trapped in grain.” If you have on-farm grain storage, James says to make sure you tell your workers not to go into a grain bin, “but if you do have to go into a bin, make sure no one is going to turn the auger on — put a lockout on.” Respect the dangers SAFETY REMINDERS FOR HARVEST Rachel Telford FIREFIGHTERS IN GEORGINA, ONTARIO, TRAINED TO RESPOND TO GRAIN ENTRAPMENTS. PHOTO COURTESY OF THE CANADIAN AGRICULTURAL SAFETY ASSOCIATION. Communication is key, so everyone knows where others are. Having someone outside the bin to monitor your well-being and respond quickly to any incident could also be lifesaving. However, James notes that if a grain entrapment occurs, help may take longer than expected to reach a victim. “When we phone 911, we assume the fire department will come to the rescue, but there are so many fire departments that don’t have confined space training. If they have to call for backup, it could be another hour before help arrives,” says James. Recently, there has been a push to train rural first responders for grain entrapment situations. Local safety associations, agribusinesses, and 4-H clubs have partnered to increase awareness during safety demonstration days, support training, and raise funds to purchase rescue cofferdams. “Fire departments and farmers need to train and work together to know how to rescue someone from a grain entrapment,” says James. She recommends farmers take confined space training, a course offered by WSPS, which highlights the need for a written hazard assessment, an entry procedure, and a rescue procedure for any confined space. The course provides a better understanding of the equipment (such as harness and tripod) and the whole plan needed to rescue someone from a confined space — such as a person trapped in grain. PREVENTION Of course, prevention is always the first response. Community outreach is an important part of James’ work. With fairs and events returning to in-person, she is happy to be back where the farmers are. In particular, Industry News

she likes to see when parents push their children towards her flowing grain display. The plexiglass mock-up of a grain wagon shows what happens to a person once a gate is opened and grain starts flowing. How quick the action figure is sucked down into the grain is always a shock. “Their eyes will pop, and their mouths will gape open,” says James, describing the typical reaction of children. “They just can’t believe it.” James hopes that reaction to the demonstrations sticks with them and that the children have a lasting understanding of why their mom or dad will tell them about the dangers on the farm. “I remember when I was a little kid, and my parents told me, ‘don’t go in where the grain is.’ I knew there was something bad — but I didn’t know what or why. I only knew that going in where the grain was, was bad,” remembers James. “But with the demonstration that I show them, they can understand the why; why going into grain is a danger.” More information on the responsibilities of a farm employer to ensure a safe work environment is available at www.wsps.ca/ farms-with-paid-employees. Information on grain bin rescue training is available from the Canadian Agricultural Safety Association www.casa-acsa.ca/en/ begrainsafe/. l ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER 15 SEPTEMBER 2022 Fire departments and farmers need to train and work together to know how to rescue someone from a grain entrapment. · · · · · -

16 MANY IMPORTANT FOLIARfungal diseases — gray leaf spot and northern leaf blight in corn, for example, and frogeye leaf spot in soybeans — are controlled by foliar fungicides that contain strobilurin active ingredients. These include Headline, Quadris, Stratego, and Quilt. But that control is, unfortunately, being eroded by resistance — which has already been found in Ontario. An international organization called the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) reports that resistance to strobilurin fungicides has occurred in at least twentyfive fungal plant pathogens despite the relatively short time that this class of fungicides has been on the market. FRAC is a part of the Crop Protection Network, an international collaboration of public and private professionals (including Grain Farmers of Ontario) that helps monitor and manage field crop pests and diseases. Strobilurin, DMI, SDHI, and other fungicide classes control more than diseases. Indeed, the strobilurins group controls an unusuallywide array of pathogenic fungi, including water molds, downy mildews, powdery mildews, leaf spotting, and rusts. Strobilurins also enhance plant growth and yield in some cases. They promote net carbon assimilation, nitrate reductase enzyme activity, stress tolerance, and hormonal balance. In terms of their mode of action on fungal pathogens, strobilurins inhibit respiration in the mitochondria of fungal cells. However, fungal pathogens with a mutation that allows them to resist this mode of action have already been found across much of the Midwest and the southern United States, and generally through the northern U.S. soybean production areas of Ohio, Michigan, and other nearby states. RESISTANCE PRESENCE Here in Ontario, Albert Tenuta, field crop pathologist at the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food & Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and Katie Goldenhar, OMAFRA horticultural crop pathologist, are currently running a project to build capacity to monitor and detect resistance in strobilurin fungicides and other fungicide groups. "It's a two-year project under the Canadian Agricultural Partnership funding program that started last fall, and we are looking at the Cercospora group of fungal diseases such as frogeye leaf spot in soybeans, as well as some others," Tenuta says. "Resistance to fungicides is a new issue. The horticulture and greenhouse sector have already had to deal with resistance, but it's new to the field crop sector." Partners in the project include Ontariobased researchers such as Dr. Owen Wally at Agriculture and Agri-food Canada and U.S.- Strobilurin fungicides RESISTANCE A GROWING PROBLEM Treena Hein based researchers such as Dr. Carl Bradley at the University of Kentucky. The team will validate protocols to monitor and actually monitor diseases which have shown resistance to strobilurin, triazole, and other fungicides. Tenuta explains that this will provide a baseline for the crop sector in Ontario, allowing historical comparisons to determine if resistant pathogen populations are increasing over time. This information can also be used to prolong the effectiveness of foliar fungicides in Ontario field crop production. That baseline has already been established in a preliminary way in Ontario with frogeye leaf spot. Wally has analyzed several isolates this year and found resistance to strobilurin (he found the mutation called G142A that's the one of concern for frogeye leaf spot in soybeans and other fungal diseases like Northern leaf blight in corn). "The good news from an Ontario perspective with regard to frogeye leaf spot is that although it did well last year due to the moisture, we've seen a reduction in the last seven or eight years due to breeding efforts," says Tenuta. "There are still varieties that are susceptible, but at the same time, we have fungicides for sclerotinia and white mold that work for frogeye as well." The project also aims to develop Ontario labs' capacity to process samples and the analytical protocols required to monitor fungicide resistance. "This expertise is not available in Ontario, and it is critical that we have it to monitor resistance development in the province," Tenuta explains. "The need for Ontario expertise is also necessary since the movement of biological samples across the border has become more complicated, and delays in analysis often result in live samples being unusable." In addition, these protocols are transferable to other agricultural sectors, and expertise Research FROG EYE LEAF SPOT IN SOYBEANS. PHOTO COURTESY OF ALBERT TENUTA.

developed in Ontario can be of potential service to other provinces. CAUSES OF RESISTANCE Overuse of fungicide products containing strobilurin has been blamed for resistance development, but in resistance to fungicides like Headline in Tennessee and other U.S. states, the fields in question did not have a history of overuse. "The first thing investigated was management practices and potential overuse," explains Tenuta, "but they started with frogeye leaf spot to isolate the resistant wild type and found that it was quite common in the soybeanproducing areas of the U.S. So, selection for more resistance has been happening in endemic resistant populations — those that were already there." CONTROLLING RESISTANCE As with herbicide resistance, growers can avoid contributing to the development of fungicide resistance by scouting to ensure proper fungicide selection and applying fungicide only when necessary and in response to increased disease risk. "With foliar diseases in soybeans or any crop, we need to understand the disease risk and the pathogen parameters, what it likes and what it doesn't like," says Tenuta. "With frogeye and white mold in soybeans, these pathogens like wetter or cooler or moderate conditions, and the risks are different every year and can be different regionally as well in Ontario." Scouting is important before R1 to full flower to pod set in soybeans and starting before tasselling in corn. Ensure your disease identification is correct so that your product selection is correct. Scout fields again within two weeks after any foliar fungicide application to determine if the fungicide is adequately managing the disease. Mixed modes of action in fungicides are available now, which helps with disease control but also reduces the selection pressure for resistance to develop, says Tenuta. "And don't go below label rates," he says. "The label rates are established to be consistently effective over time and should be closely followed." l ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER 17 SEPTEMBER 2022 Resistance to fungicides is a new issue. The horticulture and greenhouse sector have already had to deal with resistance, but it's new to the field crop sector. AirMix Liquid Fluidizer Flat Floor Stainless Tanks Stainless Hopper Bins Powder Coated Multi-Purpose SmoothWall Bins Meridian is the leader in fertilizer storage systems. Take advantage of low prices, bulk savings and avoid lineups when you’re time matters most by storing fertilizer on your farm. Meridian has a full range of customizable Stainless Tanks and SmoothWall Bins sure to fit your needs. ® © 2021 Meridian Manufacturing Inc. Registered Trademarks Used Under License. (11/2021)

18 An update on Grain Farmers of Ontario news and events YOUR GRAIN FARMERS OF ONTARIO TEAM Here is our next installment of profiles of your Grain Farmers of Ontario staff to help introduce you to the team. ISABELLA MANGIAPANE, GRAIN DISCOVERYZONE AMBASSADOR Isabella Mangiapane joined Grain Farmers of Ontario in June 2022 in the role of Grain Discovery Zone ambassador. Mangiapane is a current student at the University of Guelph headed into her fourth year in September. She is working towards a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, majoring in Honours Agriculture andminoring in Business. She brings a strong perspective from the food retail industry with previous experience working in her father’s grocery store franchise. She is also no stranger to the agriculture industry, having grown up helping her grandparents’ greenhouse operation and blueberry farm, where they also grow a variety of cash crops. As Grain Discovery Zone ambassador, Mangiapane supports Grain Farmers of Ontario’s public outreach brand Good in Every Grain by bringing the Grain Discovery Zone trailer to fairs, festivals, and events across Ontario. She is very excited to have joined the Grain Farmers of Ontario team and loves chatting about anything and everything grain related! If you see her at an event near you, please stop by the trailer to say hi, and feel free to come pick her brain with any questions you have about grain farming! WOMEN’S GRAIN SYMPOSIUM Grain Farmers of Ontario’s Women’s Grain Symposium returns as an in-person event this fall, to be held at the Delta Hotel and Conference Centre in Guelph November 28-29, 2022. Focused on developing women leaders in Ontario’s grain and oilseed industry, the symposium will feature industry speakers, leadership development training, and networking opportunities. For more information or to register, visit www.gfo.ca/womens-symposium. ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING The Grain Farmers of Ontario Annual General Meeting will be returning to an in-person format on September 13, 2022, at the Craigowan Golf Club, 595838 Hwy 59 N, Woodstock, from 8 a.m. — noon. Buffet breakfast and lunch will be served. The meeting will also be live-streamed. The business meeting will feature reports from the Board, staff, and a review of the 2021 Grain Farmers of Ontario financial statements. The meeting is in conjunction with Canada’s Outdoor Farm Show, held at the Discovery Farm, Woodstock, September 13-15. AGM attendees will be provided with a ticket to the show. More information and registration details will be posted on www.gfo.ca. ANNUAL REPORT Grain Farmers of Ontario’s 2022 Annual Report is available online at www.gfo.ca, or you can request a printed copy by calling the office at 1-800-265-0550. The report contains a review of Grain Farmers of Ontario’s activities during the last fiscal year and the audited financial statements. Annual General Meeting attendees are encouraged to review the financial statements before attending the meeting to be prepared to ask any questions they may have. AGRONOMY RESOURCES Grain Farmers of Ontario offers a number of agronomy resources. Visit www.gfo.ca/agonomy for information on crop management, crop performance trials, apps and guides, soil leadership, and information on the Great Lakes Yield Enhancement Network project. The Grain Farmers of Ontario agronomy team, Marty Vermey and Laura Ferrier, publish a FROM THE CHAIR A Q&A with Brendan Byrne, chair of Grain Farmers of Ontario. As we head to the AGM and see our Annual Report released, what were some of the highlights for you? 2022 marked a year of change and returning to a more “normal” life. I started my remarks at the 2022 March Classic by reminding people that it had been over one thousand days since we had come together in that room. The reopening of the province, country, and beyond has been really welcome. It allowed us to start re-connecting with farmer members in person. We were also able to host a federal government reception near Parliament, and Grain Farmers of Ontario leadership was able to connect with a number of MPs, Senators and staff. Those inperson “hallway conversations” are vital for our relationship-building and influence. Returning to in-person meetings, events, and community fairs — you name it — also served as a reminder that we as farmers do find a way during times of strife or crisis. We made it through the lockdowns and a global pandemic and are still fighting and growing food for everyone across Canada and beyond. Do you have a question for our chair? Email GrainTALK@gfo.ca.

Grain Farmers of Ontario’s Board of Directors held its annual summer meeting and tour in District 3 (Lambton) in early July. The tour included stops at Cargill, CF Industries, Suncor Ethanol, and the Oil Museum of Canada. It offered a great view of the diverse industry within Sarnia and the surrounding area. The Board was also pleased to welcome MPs, MPPs, and local politicians to a supper meeting with agriculture industry representatives, local farmers, and the Advanced Agricultural Leadership Program Class 19. CEREAL RYE GROWERS Growers of cereal rye have expressed interest in increasing future opportunities for the crop and have asked Grain Farmers of Ontario to consider adding this crop to its mandate. Should this occur, Grain Farmers of Ontario would look at leveraging agronomic research, market development, public communication, and advocacy for programs and policies for cereal rye. As part of the process, all farmers that grow and harvest cereal rye are asked to register below. This registration does not imply support for the inclusion of cereal rye to the Grain Farmers of Ontario mandate. Rather, the registration will be used to keep farmers growing cereal rye updated on the issue and seek input, as required. Register at www.gfo.ca/marketing/cereal-rye-growers/. MARKET COMMENTARY by Philip Shaw Grain prices have dropped precipitously since earlier in the spring, as it has been a tough pricing environment in early summer. Futures prices dropped as noncommercial investment capital left agricultural futures markets, following a general meltdown in other commodities such as oil. This happened despite a July United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) report which predicted corn acreage up by 400,000 to 89.9 million acres while holding yield at 177 bushels per acre, pegging U.S. production at 14.505 billion bushels. USDA kept planted soybean acreage at 88.3 million acres and national yield at 51.5 bushels per acre which translates to total new crop soybean production of 4.505 billion bushels. In Ontario, the Canadian dollar hovering in and around the 77 cents U.S. level has helped sustain cash grain prices in a negative environment. weekly field observations report on the Ontario Grain Farmer website and in the weekly CropTalk e-newsletter. Find out more on www.ontariograinfarmer.ca. WEBINARS Learn about the latest agronomic and industry news from the comfort of your office, kitchen table, or even the tractor cab — wherever you have wifi! Grain Farmers of Ontario’s GrainTALK webinars feature industry leaders and the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) field crop team discussing the topics that matter to growers. Recent webinars include: • Grain Quality & Grading with SGS Canada Inc. • Insects update with OMAFRA‘s Tracey Baute • How to prepare for fertilizer supply chain issues and costs with OMAFRA‘s Ben Rosser • Diseases in the field with Albert Tenuta from OMAFRA Find out more at www.gfo.ca/GrainTALK. SUMMER EVENTS It’s been a busy summer for Grain Farmers of Ontario staff and farmer-member volunteers who have travelled across Ontario to fairs, festivals, and events to help Ontarians learn about grains and grain farming. Our new Grains on the Go trailer, officially launched at the March Classic, had its first public appearance at the Canada Day celebrations in Ottawa on July 1 and then made appearances at the Honda Indy in Toronto and the Canadian National Exhibition. The new trailer has lots of fun and interactive ways for consumers to learn about grains in fun and interesting ways, including virtual reality, trivia, and the opportunity to learn from real grain farmers. Come visit us this fall at the International Plowing Match and the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair. The Grain Discovery Zone trailer has crisscrossed the province, attending events like the Niagara Regional Exhibition, Tecumseth’s 100-year celebration, and the Vankleek Fair. Visitors of all ages love playing in the corn box and learning about Ontario grains. As we head into the busy fall fair and festival season, come visit us at an event close to you! Find out more at www.GoodinEveryGrain.ca/events. 19 Discover other ways to join the GrainTALK conversation: E-News, Webinars, Podcasts, Radio, Research Days, and events. Visit www.gfo.ca/ GrainTALK. ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER SEPTEMBER 2022

20 An update on Grain Farmers of Ontario news and events Partners in Soil for Life include Beef Farmers of Ontario, Christian Farmers Federation of Ontario, Conservation Ontario, Co-op Regionale, Farm and Food Care Ontario, Grand River Conservation Authority, Ontario Federation of Agriculture, Ontario Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association, Ontario Soil & Crop Improvement Association, Ontario Soil Network, Ontario Certified Crop Advisors, and Soils at Guelph Initiative. Find out more at www.ontariosoilhealth.ca and follow #SoilForLife on Twitter. FARM AND ROAD SAFETY During this busy harvest season, be sure to keep road safety in mind when traveling between farms, fields, and the elevator. Review the rules of the road with farm equipment operators, inspect equipment to ensure that lights, taillights, and signals are working properly, and ensure your farm vehicles are equipped with slow moving vehicle signs. Visit www.ofa.on.ca/resources/smv-roadsafety/ for more information on how to keep you, your farm workers, and your fellow motorists safe. SOIL FOR LIFE Grain Farmers of Ontario, together with industry partners, have recently launched the Soil for Life initiative. Soil for Life will focus on five major principles to break down and simplify the complex concept of soil health and sustainability, including building soil organic matter, diversifying crops, minimizing soil disturbance, keeping living roots throughout the year, and keeping the soil covered. Soil for Life will help to focus conversations on soil health and amplify a unified voice in agriculture. Farmers constantly have to tap into wells of strength. It takes strength and resilience to navigate the many challenges they face. It is also a test of strength to reach out for help when the stresses of farming become too much. Recognizing the need for help and reaching out is not easy. Some of the agencies and people you can reach out to for support are listed here. What can you do in addition to asking for help? Here are some stress management techniques you can use. For the complete list, visit www.gfo.ca/farmerwellness/. 5 Daily Easy and Free Activities Farmers often rely on to-do lists to help get through busy days. Here is a self-care “to-do list” with a few tips that can help boost your well-being each day. Stay connected If possible, take time with family, or head out for a walk with a friend or neighbour. If meeting in person is not possible, hop on a video chat with friends and family. Farmer wellness first Grain Farmers of Ontario Farmer Wellness Guide: www.gfo.ca/farmerwellness/support-resources/ Farmer Wellness Initiative: 1-866-267-6255, available 24 hours a day 7 days a week. Learn more at: www.farmerwellnessinitiative.ca Get some fresh air and exercise Getting sunshine and fresh air will not only lift your mood but can also help you sleep better and think more clearly Shower and get dressed When you’re feeling down, everything can feel like an obstacle. But simply taking a quick shower and getting dressed, can leave you feeling more uplifted and motivated Unplug Information overload is a real thing. Schedule some time away from devices each day and take a break. Reach out We need each other more than ever. Reaching out to a friend you trust even just to talk about the busy day you had can make a world of difference.