Ontario Grain Farmer March 2024

Published by www.OntarioGrainFarmer.ca MARCH 2024 CROP MANAGEMENT Winning with wheat LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE GREAT LAKES YEN

LOW-RATE SKIP IMITATOR PRODUCTS FOR AGRONOMICALLY EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS Trusted solutions like TRIBUNE™ nitrogen stabilizer, ANVOL™ nitrogen stabilizer and SUPERU™ fertilizer deliver higher active ingredient concentrations that low-rate products can’t match. See how other stabilizers stack up to proven solutions that defend your nitrogen and your bottom line. TRIBUNE and the TRIBUNE logo, ANVOL and the ANVOL logo and SUPERU and the SUPERU logo are trademarks of Koch Agronomic Services, LLC. Koch and the Koch logo are trademarks of Koch Industries, Inc. © 2024 Koch Agronomic Services, LLC. DefendYourN.ca NITROGEN PROTECTION

MARCH 2024 volume 15, number 5 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER is published 9 times a year (December/January, February, March, April/May, June/July, August, September, October, and November) through Grain Farmers of Ontario. Distribution is to all Ontario barley, corn, oat, soybean, and wheat farmer-members. Associate Membership Subscription available upon request. Views and opinions expressed in this magazine are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the policies of Grain Farmers of Ontario. Seek professional advice before undertaking any recommendations or suggestions presented in this magazine. PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT NO. 40065283. Return undeliverable items to Grain Farmers of Ontario, 679 Southgate Drive, Guelph, ON N1G 4S2. © Grain Farmers of Ontario all rights reserved. Publisher: Grain Farmers of Ontario, Phone: 1-800-265-0550, Website: www.gfo.ca; Managing Editor: Mary Feldskov; Production Co-ordinator: McCorkindale Advertising & Design; Advertising Sales and Sponsorship Consultant: Joanne Tichborne 6 ON THE COVER Stormy skies ahead Treena Hein WHAT TO EXPECT IN 2024 From the CEO’s desk FEEDING THE WORLD 4 A year in review Laura Ferrier 10 Market review 2022 - 2023 Blair Andrews 12 Business side Conversations with business experts 9 GrainTALK newsletter An update on Grain Farmers of Ontario news and events 16 What do Canadians think about food? Mary Feldskov 14 Crop side Agronomic information from crop specialists 23 European trade policies Ontario Grain Farmer 18 More winter barley acres Matt McIntosh 20 Grain contracts guide Mary Feldskov 22 Ontario Agricultural Conference 2024 Ontario Grain Farmer 24 Stronger leadership Rachel Telford 26 Good in Every Grain Updates on our campaign 30 Farming for world hunger Rebecca Hannam 28 172024 ANNUAL DISTRICT MEETINGS CHECK HERE FOR DATES AND TIMES DECEMBER 2023 / JANUARY 2024 volume 15, number 3 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMERis published 9 times a year (December/January, February, March, April/May, June/July, August, September, October, and November) through Grain Farmers of Ontario. Distribution is to all Ontario barley, corn, oat, soybean, and wheat farmer-members. Associate Membership Subscription available upon request. Views and opinions expressed in this magazine are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the policies of Grain Farmers of Ontario. Seek professional advice before undertaking any recommendations or suggestions presented in this magazine. PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT NO. 40065283. Return undeliverable items to Grain Farmers of Ontario, 679 Southgate Drive, Guelph, ON N1G 4S2. © Grain Farmers of Ontario all rights reserved. Publisher: Grain Farmers of Ontario, Phone: 1-800-265-0550, Website: www.gfo.ca; Managing Editor: Mary Feldskov; Production Co-ordinator: Kim Ratz; Advertising Sales and Sponsorship Consultant: Joanne Tichborne BIODEGRADABLE POLY 15-03 OGF DecemberJanuary 2023-24_OnGrainFarmer 2023-11-09 11:04 AM Page 3 Crop side Agronomic information from crop specialists ON THE COVER Winning with wheat Mary Feldskov LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE GREAT LAKES YEN 4From the CEO’s desk Growing our reputation 16GrainTALK newsletter An update on Grain Farmers of Ontario news and events 30Good in Every Grain Updates on our campaign 20New phosphorus products Lois Harris 22The next chapter Mary Feldskov 28Fertilizer in 2024 Matt McIntosh 162024 MARCH CLASSIC VIEW THE AGENDA 102024 YEN wrap-up Alexandra Dacey Fighting soybean disease Rebecca Hannam Gocrops.ca Laura Ferrier 9Business side Conversations with business experts 26Crop side Agronomic information from crop specialists

ONTARIO’S REPUTATION FOR GROWING HIGH-QUALITY AND SUSTAINABLE GRAINS continues to drive demand for the products that Grain Farmers of Ontario’s farmer-members grow — and this was evident on a recent trade mission to Mexico that Brendan Byrne, director of District 1 (Essex), and I participated in at the end of January. Led by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs Minister Lisa Thompson, the delegation included partners along the value chain, including processors, millers, bakeries, and export companies. As the sixth-largest export market for Ontario agri-food products, with a two-way trade value of $2.8 billion in 2022, the Mexican market, with a population of 127 million, is an integral part of Ontario’s trade portfolio. Grain Farmers of Ontario is committed to working with our partners in the provincial and federal governments and building upon the trade relationships developed and nurtured by Cereals Canada in countries like Mexico to ensure a robust trade environment for Ontario-grown wheat. On the other side of the world, Grain Farmers of Ontario was represented by Scott Persall, director of District 5 (Elgin, Norfolk) and Dana Dickerson, manager of market development and sustainability, on a Soy Canada trade mission to Thailand and Japan in early February. Southeast Asia is a significant market for Canadian-grown soybeans — Japan alone imports more than 8.3 metric tonnes each year, valued at $351 million. The trade mission highlighted the sustainability of Canada’s soybean crop, which is highly valued in the region for its quality and consistency. The new Sustainable Canadian Soy program, launched in 2022, builds on that reputation and allows Canadian farmers to demonstrate and quantify their sustainable practices. The Mexican trade mission marked the last time I travelled with Brendan Byrne as chair of Grain Farmers of Ontario — his three-year term ended in mid-February. Over the past three years, Brendan has been a steadfast champion of the Ontario grain industry. He has led the organization through unprecedented challenges, including the Covid-19 pandemic, the fallout from the Russian invasion of Ukraine and its impact on fertilizer supply and prices, and most recently, the St. Lawrence Seaway strike action. With each of these challenges, Brendan amplified the voice of Ontario’s 28,000 grain farmers to media, consumers, and provincial and federal governments, bringing our key messages to the forefront. He has stewarded Grain Farmers of Ontario’s campaigns to support issues, including Bill C-234 to remove the carbon tax on grain drying and to increase the Ontario government’s support of the Risk Management Program. Working with Brendan over the past three years has been a pleasure and an honour, and I extend my personal thanks to him for his commitment, friendship, and support. That being said, Brendan is not going anywhere — Grain Farmers of Ontario will continue to benefit from his leadership as director of District 1 (Essex). As we head into March, you’ve likely been to many farm meetings and conferences over the winter months — but there is one more upcoming event you won’t want to miss! The Grain Farmers of Ontario’s annual March Classic is just around the corner, being held March 19 at RBC Place in London. Whether you’ve been many times before or this will be your first March Classic, I’m sure you’ll be impressed by the fantastic line-up of speakers, opportunities for networking with colleagues, friends, and industry, and the top-notch food and entertainment that has built March Classic’s reputation as Ontario’s premier agriculture event. You can find out more about the March Classic, including the agenda and how to register, on page 16. I hope to see you there! • Crosby Devitt, CEO, Grain Farmers of Ontario 4 From the CEO’s desk Growing our reputation CROSBY DEVITT AND BRENDAN BYRNE JOINED MINISTER LISA THOMPSON ON A TRADE MISSION TO MEXICO IN LATE JANUARY.

Bringing together www.gocereals.ca, www.gocorn.net, www.gosoy.ca and www.gobeans.ca under a new, centralized website. Powered by Ontario’s crop committees, www.GoCrops.ca will serve as a one-stop source to access Ontario field crop variety and hybrid performance information. Introducing GoCrops.ca What can be found online: • Third-party variety and hybrid performance and agronomic data for major Ontario field crops • Head-to-head comparisons by year and growing area • Variety information • Disease testing results • Historical variety and hybrid performance and agronomic data • General crop committee information Unique website features: • An enhanced overall user experience for farmers and other website users • A simplified and streamlined resource to support seed selection decisions • A modern, updated and fresh appearance • Mobile friendly features • A consistent look and feel across all crop types GoCrops.ca was developed by the Ontario Cereal Crops Committee, Ontario Corn Committee, Ontario Pulse Crop Committee, and Ontario Soybean and Canola Committee, with funding support in part from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and Grain Farmers of Ontario.

6 Cover story Winning with wheat LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE GREAT LAKES YEN Mary Feldskov OVER THE PAST THREE YEARS, THE GREAT LAKES YIELD ENHANCEMENT NETWORK (YEN) participants have posted some pretty impressive results. In 2023, the highest yield award went to Jeff Cook, from London, Ontario, with a yield of 173.4 bushels/acre, with Nick Suwyn of Wayland, Michigan, coming up close behind with 171.4 bushels/acre, and Jeff Krohn, from Elkton Michigan, placing third with a yield of 167.1 bushels/acres. IT’S NOT JUST ABOUT YIELD The Great Lakes YEN is more than just a yield competition: it’s a way to connect farmers from both sides of the border and help them understand more about their crops and the yields they are achieving — taking a comprehensive approach to learning what agronomic practices may lead to advancing wheat management for the highest economic returns in future fields. Fields are benchmarked, evaluating how an individual field compares to the whole group of Great Lakes YEN entrants through agronomic and environmental data collected throughout the season on items such as rainfall, sunlight, soil baseline nutrient levels, and inputs such as nutrients and crop protection products, the number of applications, and timing of applications. The Great Lakes YEN is also able to model the crop’s yield potential for each participant in a program year by looking at the plant’s development stages, recording the basic resources (light, temperature, and water) available, and calculating the crop’s success in capturing these resources. Using this yield potential model, three 2023 YEN participants came out on top — Mark Davis, from Napanee, Ontario, achieved 117 per cent of yield potential; Krohn and Wallace Loewen from Middleton, Michigan, came in second and third with 107 per cent of yield potential. THREE YEARS OF SUCCESS Jeff Krohn, a Great Lakes YEN participant since its 2021 pilot season, landed in the top three of both the top yield and achieving the highest yield potential in 2023 — and has taken home prizes in each of the three years he’s participated. In 2022, he took home gold in both the yield competition (165.9 bushels/acre) and the potential yield category (88 per cent of potential yield). In 2021, he was awarded top honours in the potential yield category — achieving 73.7 per cent of potential that year. Krohn’s success is not a surprise to Dennis Pennington, Michigan State University wheat • The Great Lakes Yield Enhancement Network (YEN) is not just a yield competition; it’s an opportunity to benchmark an individual field’s potential and actual yield against regional averages. • Jeff Krohn from Elkton, Michigan, has topped the leaderboard in each of the three years of the YEN program in both the highest yield and percentage of yield potential achieved. • Krohn values the YEN for the opportunity it provides to network with and learn from other wheat growers in the Great Lakes region. • Cover crops, lower seeding rates, narrower rows, and early planting dates are some of the similarities he sees among high-producing wheat growers. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW extension specialist and member of the Great Lakes YEN steering committee. Taking what he’s learned from the Great Lakes YEN program, Krohn has improved his yields and potential yield percentages year-over-year. “Jeff is a top-notch farmer,” says Pennington. “He pays attention to details and is constantly testing new equipment and practices on his farm. Jeff is always looking for new ways to overcome production hurdles and find new ways to be more productive and sustainable.” ALEXANDRA DACEY, DENNIS PENNINGTON, JOANNA FOLLINGS, AND JEFF KROHN AT THE GREAT LAKES YEN WRAP UP MEETING IN JANUARY 2024.

7 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER MARCH 2024 continued on page 8 ACROSS LAKE HURON Krohn’s farm is located in the “thumb” of Michigan, in Huron County — directly across the lake from Huron County, Ontario. The opportunity to network with and learn from some of the best wheat growers in the region was a big reason why Krohn initially wanted to get involved in the Great Lakes YEN program. “I see some of the best growers who grow wheat are in the YEN program; obviously, we grow pretty good wheat, but I wanted to grow better wheat,” says Krohn. “The collaboration with all of the other growers and the meetings with the growers, the summer tours that they have, are the best ways to talk and collaborate with the other good wheat growers in the same geographical areas.” Topping the leaderboard has not been one of his goals, he says. “I don’t see it as a yield competition,” he says. “It’s a contest to grow better wheat. To me, it’s about figuring out what is the next five bushels, what will get me to the next ten bushels.” After three years, he continues to learn more about his own wheat management and sees tremendous value in the reports that the YEN program provides. “The data that is in the YEN results, there is just so much there; you could spend days

8 Cover story continued from page 6 GREAT LAKES YEN TOURED MICHIGAN IN 2023. and days analyzing the data to pick out a few things.” Krohn says that there is not one specific thing that he has gleaned from his YEN reports that has ultimately changed the management of his wheat crop, but rather, it has reinforced that the things he is doing are leading him in the right direction. “Nitrogen is a big driver in building biomass,” he says. “When I see other YEN participants using 180 to 200 pounds of nitrogen, and they are not even close to being top yields — that verifies that using 135 to 140 pounds of nitrogen, that makes me feel better, that it’s the right rate.” Looking at the other high performers in the YEN program, Krohn says he sees many similarities in their management practices. “Cover crops, lower seeding rate, narrower rows, T1 and T2 application of fungicides, those are things that Jeff [Cook] and I are doing that are similar,” says Krohn. “That helps to verify that I’m on the right track.” PLANTING DATE MATTERS In addition to wheat, Krohn and his wife Stephanie grow a rotation of corn, soybeans, dry beans, and alfalfa on 2,000 acres in partnership with his sons, Brandon and Nathan and his wife Amber, and their son Westin — the fifth, sixth, and seventh generations to operate the family farm. Including dry beans in his rotation ahead of wheat is one of the keys to Krohn’s success, according to Joanna Follings, cereals specialist with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and member of the Great Lakes YEN steering committee. “Dry beans come off the field one to two weeks earlier than soybeans,” says Follings. “We know that early planting is critical to getting those high wheat yields.” BEST ADVICE When asked what his best advice is for someone who wants to grow higher-yielding wheat, Krohn points to seeding rate. “Lower your seeding rate,” says Krohn. “I see too many guys going with high seeding rates. Plant early, and lower your seeding rate.” •

9 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER Young workers’ safety BUSINESS SIDE WITH... (J.M.) WHAT RESPONSIBILITIES DO FARM EMPLOYERS HAVE WHEN HIRING OR WORKING WITH YOUNG PEOPLE? (S.M.) A farm with paid employees is a workplace like any other under Ontario’s Occupational Health and Safety Act. As an employer, farmers are responsible for running a safe farming operation — and that extends to all workers on the farm, including young workers. In addition to legal responsibility for their workers, farmers are often faced with the unique challenge of keeping children and youth safe due to the unique setting of both home and workplace. Proper training and a safe working environment are essential for everyone — employees and family. All workers, including young workers, have three rights in Ontario: the right to know, the right to participate, and the right to refuse unsafe work. WHAT ARE SOME FARM WORKPLACE SAFETY REMINDERS FOR YOUNG WORKERS? Teaching young people the importance of safety on the farm is just as important as proper training for those being paid to work. From 2011 — 2020, on Ontario farms, there were 38 fatalities under the age of 29 (21 children were younger than 14 years and 17 between the ages 15-29). No matter their age or experience, workers have a right to know about workplace health and safety hazards and as a farmer, it is crucial that you make them aware of what could go wrong and how they can do tasks safely. Everyone on the farm should be encouraged to stop and ask themselves what could go wrong, think about whether they clearly understand and are ready to do the task, and then act to make it safe using the right tools, equipment, procedures, etc. If unsure, workers should always ask for (and be offered) more training. Employers should do whatever it takes to make sure they feel confident they can do the job safely. To help break down young people’s wall of invincibility, the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) recently launched a #PracticeSafeWork campaign that uses funny videos with animal animations to raise awareness that workplace safety (including farm safety) isn’t something to take for granted. WHAT OBLIGATIONS DO FARM EMPLOYERS HAVE TO TRAIN AND SUPERVISE YOUNG WORKERS? Under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, employers have a number of duties to protect new and young workers. Training requirements include ensuring workers complete an occupational health and safety awareness training program that meets regulatory requirements. Employers must also ensure workers understand the hazards in their work and how to work safely to protect themselves from injury and illness. They must also inform them about their health and safety rights, including the Sandy Miller, Industry and Partner Relations, Workplace Safety & Prevention Services www.wsps.ca Business side Jeanine Moyer right to refuse work that they believe could endanger themselves or others. The roles and responsibilities of a young farm worker can look different each day, depending on the season, weather, and equipment required for the job. Farm employers need to ensure proper training is provided for each responsibility, communicate clearly, answer questions, and be available to address any follow-up concerns. CAN YOU RECOMMEND FARM OR YOUNG WORKER SAFETY RESOURCES? Along with the videos, the WSIB campaign website www.practicesafework.ca is a helpful resource for young people and their parents to learn more about: • how they can play a role in staying safe at work • the types of questions they should ask employers about safety protocols and workplace hazards • what to do in the case of an injury • their rights and responsibilities related to workplace safety Workplace Safety & Prevention Services offers an online checklist — How Does Safety Rate on Your Farm? to help farmers recognize safety hazards so they can be corrected. You can view or download the checklist here: www.wsps.ca/ resource-hub/checklists/how-does-safety-rateon-your-farm-family-farm-safety-checklist. The Canadian Agricultural Safety Association has an excellent online resource to help match activities appropriate for youth working in agriculture with their developmental level and abilities — www.casa-acsa.ca/en/resources/ ag-youth-work-guidelines.• MARCH 2024

10 Agronomy 2024 YEN wrap-up A SUCCESSFUL THIRD YEAR IN THE BOOKS Alexandra Dacey THE ONTARIO GREAT LAKES YIELD ENHANCEMENT NETWORK (YEN) wrap-up meeting, held in January 2024, kicked off with a welcome from Marty Vermey, senior agronomist with Grain Farmers of Ontario and a welcome video from Dr. Roger Sylvester-Bradley, head of crop performance with ADAS — the founders of the Yield Enhancement Network in the U.K. Sylvester-Bradley congratulated the group for the tremendous interest in the program in North America and also took the time to present some data summarizing the factors that affect yields in the U.K., emphasizing that there are several factors both in and out of farmers’ control. One of the most anticipated sessions of the day was the 2023 Great Lakes YEN data recap presented by Joanna Follings, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) cereals specialist, and Dennis Pennington, Michigan State University wheat systems specialist. They noted that a few trends were evident across fields that participated in 2023: most fields used no-till practices, seeded wheat after soybeans, and applied a fungicide at both the T1 (early spring) and T3 (flowering) stages for disease management. It was hypothesized that some of the high yields achieved in 2023 were due to a longer and cooler grain fill period. Higher solar radiation (both incident and intercepted) across the region was also highlighted compared to previous years. A correlation analysis was also presented, highlighting the relationships between different variables. With thousands of correlations assessed in 2023, a few key relationships were identified. The team noted that the amount of above-ground biomass from the mature winter wheat crop was strongly tied to higher grain yields, evident in the high biomass recorded for the 2023 yield winners in Ontario and the U.S. Higher biomass helps with earlier canopy closure and more solar radiation capture. Other factors associated with high yields included the number of heads per square meter and the number of grains per square meter. FACTORS AFFECTING YIELD STABILITY Dr. Bruno Basso, from Michigan State University, presented the factors affecting yield stability to the group over all three years of the Great Lakes YEN program. Dr. Basso explained the concept of a “digital twin,” which recreates an entire field digitally with the help of artificial intelligence, remote sensing, yield history maps, and SALUS (systems approach for land use sustainability). This approach allows Dr. Basso’s lab to create detailed temporal yield stability maps, showing stable versus unstable areas of a single field. With increasing interest in the agricultural research community to create a spatial inventory of yield maps, Dr. Basso and his team were able to take the data collected by Great Lakes YEN participants and create individual yield stability maps. Farmers can then use these maps to help them determine how to best manage specific areas within their fields, particularly those underperforming. Eventually,

The winners of the Great Lakes YEN competition for the highest yield potential include: 1. Mark Davis (Napanee, Ontario) – 117.6 per cent 2. Jeffery Krohn (Elkton, Michigan) – 107.2 per cent 3. Wallace Loewen (Middleton, Michigan) – 107.2 per cent The winners of the highest yield are: 1. Jeff Cook (London, Ontario) – 173.4 bushels/acre 2. Nick Suwyn (Wayland, Michigan) – 171.43 bushels/acre 3. Jeffery Krohn (Elkton, Michigan) – 167.1 bushels/acre 2024 GREAT LAKES YEN WINNERS 11 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER Dr. Basso hopes that the benchmarked data collected through the YEN and the process-based models his team is working on will be used to develop strategic and tactical management decisions that could someday help farmers calculate their sustainability metrics, such as a carbon footprint. PANEL DISCUSSION Jeff Cook, who farms near London, Ontario, was joined by Jeffery Krohn from Elkton, Michigan, and Jonathan Zettler, Certified Crop Advisor and owner of Fieldwalker Agricultural Services, for a grower panel session. All three have participated in the Great Lakes YEN program since it began in 2021 and have made small changes to their cropping practices every year based on the data in their final reports. For example, Cook has updated his planting equipment and has started using the results of his soil and tissue tests to adjust his inputs; and Krohn now prioritizes preserving the health of his soils, carefully keeping track of how the plant uses nutrients throughout the growing season which is now possible by comparing the results of the nutrient results he receives after taking his soil, tissue, plant, and grain samples as part of the YEN program. Zettler shared that with the multiple fields he provides agronomic advice on, the most important consideration for farmers is how their drill performs in high residue environments. He also emphasized the importance of recording tillers per plant in the fall (as this influences the number of heads per plant) and noted how he has seen growers who have taken part in the YEN program over multiple years make small changes to their crop management every year to improve the yield potential they can achieve continually. Jonathan reiterated the importance of high biomass — all his top growers in the 2023 YEN program had higher-than-average biomass. THE 2024 YEN The YEN program prioritizes grower-to-grower networking and on-farm learning. Throughout the day, attendees had plenty of time to ask detailed questions about best management practices, recommendations for the year ahead, and what updates will be made as part of the 2024 Great Lakes YEN program. Farmers were able to learn about what practices other winter wheat growers and agronomists plan to implement in 2024, whether it be the timing of crop inputs or adjusting their row width in future years. A special thank you to all the farmers and agronomists who worked together to make the 2023 season a tremendous success. Thank you also to the sponsors who support this innovative program, without which the Great Lakes YEN could not exist in its current form. The 2024 Great Lakes YEN program is currently underway, with more than 200 fields involved across the Great Lakes region of Ontario and the United States. Alexandra Dacey is Grain Farmers of Ontario’s agronomy project coordinator. • Cook has updated his planting equipment and has started using the results of his soil and tissue tests to adjust his inputs. MARCH 2024

12 Research Fighting soybean disease RESEARCHERS FOCUS ON SCN AND WHITE MOLD Rebecca Hannam ONTARIO IS THE 10TH LARGEST SOYBEAN PRODUCING REGION in the world and is home to a variety of innovative research programs that advance crop production and market opportunities. Developing integrated disease management strategies and breeding for disease resistance are key research areas to help farmers protect soybean yield. Two three-year research projects that support the management of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and white mold will conclude in 2024. THE SCN COALITION SCN is the most yield-limiting disease and plant health issue in soybeans in North America and is estimated to cost farmers $1 billion (USD) annually. While the most significant losses are currently in the U.S., Ontario losses are expected to increase rapidly in the coming years as the erosion of SCN resistance (conferred by P188788 genetics) becomes more widespread. The issue is also becoming more present in Quebec and Manitoba. Dr. Milad Eskandari, associate professor and plant breeder at the University of Guelph, and Albert Tenuta, field crop plant pathologist, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), have worked to advance SCN research and increase grower awareness through a multifaceted project. Their objectives included surveying Ontario fields for nematode population and distribution, evaluating nematicides and other products for SCN control, and continuing to work with the SCN Coalition, a partnership with university scientists from 28 US states, commodity boards, and other stakeholders. “By partnering with our colleagues, from both extension and research, we’re able to utilize our strengths and resources to maximize our efforts and ultimately get one message and one voice across to soybean producers in North America,” says Tenuta. PRACTICAL RESEARCH Soil samples collected across the province confirm that all soybeanproducing areas have SCN. As expected, the highest frequency was in the southwest (Oxford to Essex counties), although detection continues to increase in Northumberland and eastern counties. The root lesion nematode was the most widespread nematode found. SCN seed treatment field trials (including sites in Rodney and Highgate, Ontario) showed that environmental factors strongly impact treatment efficiency. No one seed treatment ranks higher in SCN management over all environments, but ILEVO did reduce SCN infection on roots more effectively than Saltro in most instances. The Ontario field trial data showed that nematicide seed treatments are most effective when used on an SCN-resistant variety. TURNING UP THE VOLUME Tenuta is the only Canadian representative on the SCN Coalition and has taken a leadership role in knowledge transfer activities, including organizing a successful National Soybean Nematode Conference in 2022. The partners reach 10,000 North American soybean growers per year through extension publications, field days, and presentations. The group has been recognized with numerous awards for excellence in marketing and promotions. “By increasing awareness, the active management by growers, as well as industry, is increasing in terms of looking at being the most effective at managing SCN with the tools that we have available to us right now, but also thinking about the future,” Tenuta says. The SCN Coalition recently developed the SCN Profit Checker calculator (thescncoalition.com/profitchecker) as a tool to help growers determine how much SCN is costing them in both yield and dollars. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS “What’s your Number? Take the Test. Beat the Pest.” is the tagline of the SCN Coalition. Eskandari and Tenuta recommend six steps for Ontario growers to plan an integrated SCN management action program. 1. Test fields to know SCN numbers 2. Rotate resistant varieties and different SCN resistance sources (including Peking) 3. Rotate non-host crops such as wheat and corn 4. Look for Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) and other diseases 5. Consider a nematode-protectant seed treatment 6. Retest fields every four to six years to evaluate progress Additional resources are available at thescncoalition.com. This project was funded by Grain Farmers of Ontario and the Canadian Agricultural Partnership (CAP), a five-year federal-provincial-territorial initiative.

13 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER “Essentially, we are arming our varieties with more resistance genes through the use of molecular markers and increasing the efficiency of developing new cultivars, which means more new disease-resistant and high-yielding food-grade soybean varieties will become available to farmers,” says Rajcan. Since the breeding process takes eight years, varieties developed from the initial crosses made in 2021 are expected to come to market in 2029. This project was funded by Grain Farmers of Ontario and the Ontario Agri-Food Innovation Alliance, a collaboration between the government of Ontario and the University of Guelph. • BREEDING FOR SCN AND WHITE MOLD Soybean breeders are also working to advance disease management. Dr. Istvan Rajcan, professor and graduate coordinator at the University of Guelph, recently led a project to increase the efficiency of selection for SCN resistance and white mold resistance in the breeding program. High throughput marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance traits was used annually in F4 and F5 soybean breeding populations. This method of selecting disease-resistant genes is significantly more efficient than phenotypic selection based on characteristics such as visual agronomic performance, maturity, number of pods per plant and absence of disease, and lodging. “When we use molecular markers, we can select the plants that will carry the resistance genes at the DNA level and not waste time or resources on testing materials in the field that don’t carry the resistance, and we do not want as new varieties,” explains Rajcan. While the project concept is relatively simple, he says the funding enabled researchers to assess a greater number of populations than they would have otherwise been able to. Crosses were initially made between SCN-resistant or white mold-resistant parents and high-yielding, high-quality food-grade soybean parents. The University of Guelph uses a nursery in Costa Rica to advance breeding materials to produce F4 populations over the winter months. From selected F4 plants, F5 generations are grown as single rows for selection in Woodstock the following year. Selected F5 single rows are grown in future trials in Woodstock, Elora, and St. Marys as recombinant inbred lines and tested for yield and agronomic traits. In this project, the marker-assisted selection occurred at both the F4 and F5 stages of the program to increase the number of resistant progenies selected for agronomic performance. Option 1 Spraying drones Built for farmers. We support and service what we sell. Come visit us at the March Classic. Manufacturer-certified seller of www.AgDrone.ca - info@AgDrone.ca - 519-343-5454 This research project received funding from Grain Farmers of Ontario. MARCH 2024

14 Industry News Gocrops.ca A FRESH WAY TO FIND TRIALS FOR ONTARIO CROPS Laura Austin Ferrier FOR OVER 80 YEARS, ONTARIO FARMERS HAVE RELIED ON third-party variety performance and hybrid trial information to help guide their seed selection choices for corn, soybeans, cereals, canola, and edible beans. What originated as large booklets of printed sheets for farmers to review hybrid and variety information and evaluate agronomic performance, including yield, pest and disease resistance, quality of crop varieties, and other agronomic parameters, evolved into individual crop-specific websites that were available for farmers, agronomists, seed companies, end users, and others to access data and make informed decisions. New in March of 2024, those web-based sites will be consolidated into a single website with a fresh new look consistent across all crop types. Grain Farmers of Ontario, with full support from four Ontario crop committees (the Ontario Cereal Crops Committee, historically found at www.gocereals.ca covering trials for winter wheat, spring wheat, barley, and oat), the Ontario Corn Committee (historically found at www.gocorn.net), the Ontario Soybean and Canola Committee (historically found at www.gosoy.ca), and the Ontario Pulse Crop Committee (historically found at www.gobeans.ca covering trials for dry edible beans), have consolidated four individual websites into one single site www.GoCrops.ca. The new streamlined website has a modern, cohesive feel, with a consistent look and easier navigation within each crop committee page and each crop committee page to access trial information. The site is also compliant with the Ontario Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA), which eliminates any barriers to accessing information. Also, a new functionality for the site is that it will be mobile-friendly, as numerous users have commented on the need to access the trial data from any device. “The Ontario Corn Committee website was in need of an overhaul,” states Ben Rosser, corn specialist with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA). “By consolidating the crop committee websites, it has allowed for the perfect opportunity to update the look, feel, and functionality of the corn committee site while ensuring the long-term viability of trial data being easily accessible to Ontario farmers.” EASY-TO-USE FUNCTIONALITY When logging onto the new GoCrops.ca hub, users will see a main landing page allowing them to select which crop trials they want to view. By simply clicking on each navigation button, they will be transferred to the individual committee page to access the data for each crop represented. They can easily maneuver back to the main hub to access another committee page. When looking behind the scenes, the coding language used for the website has also been updated, further enhancing the user experience and ensuring the website’s longevity. In some cases, if sites have become too outdated, the site may be susceptible to security issues. It could also be prone to becoming non-functioning and unsupported by internet servers. With the recent update, the new site should be supported for the foreseeable future. A search bar has also been added so that users can easily find what they are looking for on each committee page. For those working ‘behind the scenes’ with the various crop committees, there is also a “committee only” side of the websites used for committee members and seed companies inputting varieties and hybrids into the provincial trials. This area of the website has also undergone redevelopment, updating coding as well as the visual and functionality aspects, similar to the farmerfacing pages. “This new GoCrops.ca website provides Ontario farmers with an invaluable tool when

15 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER This new GoCrops.ca website provides Ontario farmers with an invaluable tool when considering their seed selection decisions. considering their seed selection decisions,” says Matthew Czerwinski, Grain Farmers of Ontario’s research lead and Ontario Cereal Crops Committee chair. “Modernizing the website allows for mobile-friendly delivery of variety performance trial data for farmers to access from any device, eliminates accessibility barriers in accessing information, and ensures the long-term viability of the performance trial data stream to allow continued management of performance trial data well into the future.” CROSS-CROP COLLABORATION The collaborative approach of developing the new website brought together stakeholders from across the sector involved in the crop committees to create the best site possible for knowledge transfer of variety, hybrid and quality information to farmers and the agriculture industry. A special thanks is extended to the four crop committees and the GoCrops.ca website subcommittee members for their efforts towards this consolidated website. brandt.ca 1-866-427-2638 LEAD THE FIELD. Brandt field grain belts deliver rapid, gentle transfer of any crop. They are available in 15" or 20" gas or electric models, with an optional gas mover kit. BELT IT OUT. More Efficient Optimized intake and transition increases grain-flow efficiency, achieving peak performance. Greater Versatility The retractable hopper and intake delivers better clearance for low bin unloads with a range of 7.5" to 16". Easier to Operate Brandt’s EZTRAK tensioning and tracking system keeps your belt aligned and properly tensioned. Be sure to visit the new GoCrops.ca website and bookmark it for future use! GoCrops.ca was developed by the Ontario Cereal Crops Committee, Ontario Corn Committee, Ontario Pulse Crop Committee, and Ontario Soybean and Canola Committee, with funding support in part from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and Grain Farmers of Ontario. Laura Austin Ferrier, CCA, is Grain Farmers of Ontario’s agronomist. • MARCH 2024

16 An update on Grain Farmers of Ontario news and events REGISTRATION IS NOW OPEN FOR THE 2024 MARCH CLASSIC! Join us on March 19, 2024, at RBC Place in London, Ontario, for Grain Farmers of Ontario’s annual conference. Register online today at www.gfo.ca/marchclassic. The future is built on the foundation we give it, and Ontario grain farming has deep, strong roots that feed this country’s people and support the success of the agriculture industry. Farmers constantly show their resiliency, their flexibility, and their innovation. In times of challenge, they persevere. They learn from the past, and they invest in the future. The farmers of tomorrow, the one per cent who will feed the world, will continue to build on these strong roots and show their strength and resilience every season. Grain Farmers of Ontario is a leader because of the strong roots it has in a strong board, strong team, and the spirit to push through in challenging times and put in the hard work for success. CONFERENCE DETAILS: Registration closes March 10. Register online at www.gfo.ca/ marchclassic or by calling 1-800-265-0550 ext. 308. Rooms are available at the DoubleTree by Hilton. Book online at www.gfo.ca/marchclassic, or farmer-members can call 519-439-1661. Use code “GFO” and ask to be booked under the Grain Farmers of Ontario room block. Book your room before March 8, 2024, to get our discounted room rate! For more information on this year’s March Classic, please contact Grain Farmers of Ontario at 1-800-265-0550 ext. 308 or email bcurtis@gfo.ca. MARCH CLASSIC AGENDA MONDAY, MARCH 18, 2024 7 p.m. 2024 March Classic Welcome Reception Sponsored by SGS Canada Inc. The welcome reception will be held on the second floor of DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel TUESDAY, MARCH 19, 2024 7 a.m. Attendee Breakfast Sponsored by John Deere Canada 8 a.m. Registration and exhibit hall opens 9 a.m. Opening remarks from Grain Farmers of Ontario 9:30 a.m. Shawn Hackett, President at Hackett Financial Advisors, the Agricultural Price Forecasting Specialists 10:30 a.m. Break, Sponsored by Syngenta 11 a.m. Marshall Sewell, Founder of Mind Your Melon, Sponsored by Farm Credit Canada Noon Lunch, Sponsored by Syngenta 1:30 p.m. Amanda Lang, Acclaimed Business Journalist, Host, Taking Stock 2:30 p.m. Break, Sponsored by Syngenta 3 p.m. Tareq Hadhad, Founder and CEO, Peace by Chocolate, EY Entrepreneur of The Year Sponsored by Royal Bank of Canada 4 p.m. Pre-banquet Reception, Sponsored by Bayer Crop Science 6 p.m. Banquet* ($65, tickets required) featuring Adam Growe, host of Cash Cab, Sponsored by SeCan 9 p.m. Conference end * Banquet tickets can be purchased on-site at registration. Cash, cheque, or credit card accepted.

17 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER EXHIBITORS A&L Canada Laboratories Ag Business & Crop Inc. Agricorp Agro-100 Alpine ALUS Middlesex Andermatt Canada Inc. BASF Agricultural Solutions Canada Bayer Crop Science Belchim Crop Protection Broadgrain C&M Seeds Canada’s Outdoor Farm Show/Discovery Farm Canadian Foodgrains Bank Canadian Grain Commission CanGrow Crop Solutions Cargill Sarnia CASE IH Christian Farmers Federation of Ontario Corteva Agriscience Canada De Dell Seeds Inc. Endo Plant Health Farm Credit Canada FMC FS Co-operatives FX Coating G3 Canada Limited Ganaraska Systems Inc. Gowan Canada Hensall Co-op Horst Systems IGPC Ingredion Canada Corporation John Deere Canada Josslin Insurance Koch Agronomic Services LAC Libro Credit Union Maizex Seeds Montag Manufacturing Nexeed Inc. Nutri-Pel Ontario Corn Fed Beef Ontario Federation of Agriculture Ontario Plowman’s Association OSCIA Pioneer Hi-Bred/Brevant Pride Seeds Prograin Roberts Farm Equipment Sales Inc. Royal Bank Scotiabank SeCan SGS Canada SWAT Maps TD Agriculture Services The Andersons The Commonwell Mutual Insurance Group The Smart Energy Company Timac Agro Canada UAP Canada Platinum Sponsors Gold Sponsors Silver Sponsors MARCH 2024

18 An update on Grain Farmers of Ontario news and events 2024 ELECTED DIRECTORS Throughout January, elections were held in each district, and all farmer-members were invited to vote for their representatives. Each district voted in their delegates, and from the delegates, a director was elected in even-numbered districts. These lists were accurate at the time of printing. Please visit www.gfo.ca for the most current listing. 2024 ELECTED DELEGATES DISTRICT 1 (Essex) Clayton Armstrong, Belle River, ON Maurice Chauvin, Point aux-Roches, ON Josh Mailloux, Amherstburg, ON Charles McLean, Maidstone, ON Grace Mullen, Comber, ON Kurt Makey, Belle River, ON Bonnie Popov, Essex, ON DISTRICT 2 (Kent) Stan Brien, Ridgetown, ON Matt Chapple, Chatham, ON Emily Charbonneau, Blenheim, ON Jay Cunningham, Thamesville, ON Stephen Denys, Chatham, ON Greg Glasier, Tilbury, ON Mark Huston, Thamesville, ON Bruce Johnstone, Chatham, ON Brent McFadden, Dresden, ON Derrick Leclair, Dresden, ON Chris Renwick, Wheatley, ON Mike Vannieuwenhuyze, Thamesville, ON Ryan Handsor, Wallaceburg, ON Tyler Robertson, Kent Bridge, ON DISTRICT 3 (Lambton) Sarah Butler, Croton, ON Maaike Campbell, Warwick Township, ON Brian Eves, Wallaceburg, ON Emery Huszka, Florence, ON Ryan Hall, Petrolia, ON Brad Langstaff, Wilkesport, ON Matt Lennan, Petrolia, ON Jonathan McRae, Alvinston, ON Brad Podolinsky, Alvinston, ON DISTRICT 4 (Middlesex) Evan Aerts, Ailsa Craig, ON Eric Dietrich, Granton, ON Paul Dietrich, Lucan, ON Rob Foster, Ilderton, ON Hilmar Kaumanns, Lucan, ON Luke McClary, Ilderton, ON Adam Robson, Ilderton, ON Matt Vanhie, Ailsa Craig, ON Ian Dann, Thorndale DISTRICT 5 (Elgin, Norfolk) Bruce Court, Courtland, ON District Name Contact 1 Brendan Byrne Essex GFObrendan@gmail.com 2 Gus Ternoey Tilbury gus@dashwheelfarms.ca 3 Julie Maw Courtright julie@mooremawfarms.ca 4 Steve Twynstra Ailsa Craig steve@twilightacrefarms.ca 5 Scott Persall Waterford spersall.sp@gmail.com 6 Jeff Barlow Hannon jeff@barlowfarms.ca 7 Angela Zilke Embro angzilke@gmail.com 8 Keith Black Belgrave bkblack@hurontel.on.ca 9 Josh Boersen Sebringville jboersen@gmail.com 10 Steve Lake Elora lake.steve@gmail.com 11 Leo Blydorp Amaranth leo.blydorp@gmail.com 12 Jeff Harrison Quinte West jeffh.gfo@gmail.com 13 Lloyd Crowe Picton gfolloyd@gmail.com 14 Scott Fife Finch scott.fife@outlook.com 15 Chuck Amyot New Liskeard charlesamyot@gmail.com

19 ONTARIO GRAIN FARMER Brock Gignac, Langton, ON Michael Pasztor, Langton, ON Taylor deRyk , Dorchester, ON Jamie McCaffery, Wallacetown, ON Allen Taylor, St. Thomas, ON Ann Vermeersch, Tillsonburg, ON DISTRICT 6 (Brant, Haldimand, Hamilton, Niagara) Matt Beischlag, Jarvis, ON Susan Gowan, Jarvis, ON Jay McLellan, Brantford, ON Brad Nimijohn, Millgrove, ON Ian Turnbull, Canfield, ON Kevin Vanderspek, Cayuga, ON Gerry Veldhuizen, Lowbanks, ON DISTRICT 7 (Oxford, Waterloo) Kevin Armstrong, Woodstock, ON Ed Crawford, Bright , ON Julia Kimber, Elmira ON Wes Hart, Woodstock, ON Jeff Hunsberger, Baden, ON Gerard Pynenburg, Princeton, ON Derek Vanderspek, Tavistock, ON DISTRICT 8 (Huron) Lauren Benoit, London, ON Mike Colclough, Clinton, ON Adam Garniss, Wingham, ON Dan Hayden, Dungannon, ON Paul Hill, Varna, ON Jeff Klomps, Bayfield, ON Rebecca Miller, Wingham, ON Matt Underwood, Wingham, ON Margaret Vincent, Belgrave, ON Brad Pryce, Walton, ON Chris Hundt, Brucefield,ON DISTRICT 9 (Perth) Brian Barker, St. Marys ON Phil Dow, Staffa, ON Matt Drummond, Shakespeare Kyle Martin, Gowanstown, ON Maggie McDonnell, Gadshill, ON Kaye McLagan, Mitchell, ON Ron Van Der Burgt, Mitchell, ON DISTRICT 10 (Bruce, Grey, Wellington) Daniel Chiappetta, Guelph, ON Ben Claussen, Moorefield, ON Ian Dickison, Mildmay, ON Neil Driscoll, Moorefield, ON Ian Furlong, Proton Station, ON Shawn Helmuth, Moorefield, ON Bailey Holborn, Moorefield, ON Matt Jacobs, Ayton, ON Aaron Legge, Chesley, ON Brock Lowry, Ripley, ON Rob Lowry, Kincardine, ON Rob Luymes, Palmerston, ON Pete Schill, Palmerston, ON Ed Seifried, Harriston, ON Scott Timmings, Rockwood, ON Darcy Trinier, Palmerston, ON Henry Van Ankum, Alma, ON Don Walter, Mildmay, ON DISTRICT 11 (Dufferin, Halton, Peel, Simcoe, York) Aaron Curtis, East Garafraxa, ON Tom Dobson, King City, ON Steve Kell, Churchill, ON Ross Langman, Elmvale, ON Paul Maurice, Tiny, ON Ed Pridham, Stayner, ON David Ritchie, Midland, ON Charlie Tilt, Moffat ON Rob Wright, Midhurst, ON DISTRICT 12 (Durham, Hastings, Kawartha, Northumberland, Peterborough) Peter Archer, Campbellford Kristen Carberry, Campbellford Reuben De Jong, Roseneath, ON Travis Greydanus, Grafton, ON Joe Hickson, Lindsay, ON Dale Mountjoy, Uxbridge, ON Craig Rickard, Bowmanville DISTRICT 13 (Addington, Frontenac, Lanark, Prince Edward) Kelsey Banks, Kemptville, ON Andrew Dawson, Lanark, ON Jennifer Doelman, Douglas, ON Delores Foster, North Gower, ON Ross Hawkins, Elgin, ON Mike Maclean, Kingston Ian McGregor, Braeside, ON DISTRICT 14 (Dundas, Glengarry Prescott, Russell, Stormont) Andy Corput, Chesterville, ON Michel Dignard, Embrun, ON Mark Fraser, Maxville, ON Andrew Harbers, Newington, ON Alan Kruszel, Newington, ON Jan Roosendaal, Winchester, ON Brent Vanden Bosch, Chesterville, ON Jakob Vogel, Monkland, ON Kevin Winters, Finch, ON DISTRICT 15 (Northern Ontario) Matt Bowman, Thornloe, ON Timo Brielmann, Pinewood, ON Simon Clouthier, Earlton ON Terry Phillips, New Liskeard, ON Loren Runnalls, New Liskeard, ON Jason Seed, Earlton, ON Dennis Jibb, New Liskeard, ON Note: Delegate list is accurate as of publication. Check www.gfo.ca/About/ Districts/ for updates. MARKET COMMENTARY By Philip Shaw On January 12, the United States Department of Agriculture weighed in with their “final” estimates. U.S. corn production was set at a record 177.3 bushels per acre, which was well above the pre-report expectations. Total U.S. corn production is now estimated to be 15.34 billion bushels. Soybeans were also increased to 50.6 bushels per acre, putting total production at 4.17 billion bushels. Higher corn production translates into higher ending stocks, now at 2.162 billion bushels, up 31 million bushels from the December report. In Ontario, the Canadian dollar has dropped back to .7414 cents U.S. as of February 6, 2024. Cash prices are lower based on the big crop in the U.S. and down futures values. The Canadian dollar remains a stimulus for Ontario cash grain prices. • MARCH 2024

20 Agronomy New phosphorus products GREY-BRUCE FARMERS’ WEEK PANEL DISCUSS OPTIONS Lois Harris PHOSPHORUS (P) BOOSTING PRODUCTS can benefit crop health and the environment, provided growers understand their soil fertility well and ensure they are incorporated in the right place at the right time. “My playbook when you want to improve fertilizer response and economics are tight is to first have a soil test to know if you’re going to get a response, the second thing is to give organic amendments a credit if you’re applying them, and third, band the fertilizer if you’re not banding it today,” says Jonathan Zettler, an agronomist with Fieldwalker Agronomy Ltd. Zettler was speaking as part of a panel at the Grey-Bruce Farmers Week Crops Day in January. Zettler and three fertilizer company representatives discussed the merits of different phosphorus improvement products. The panel was facilitated by Colin Elgie, soil fertility specialist with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. THE PROBLEM Phosphorus deficiency in crops shows up with purpling on the lower leaves of plants. The condition can lead to stunted root growth, plant development, and, ultimately, reduced yields. The target in most of Ontario for optimal P levels is 20 parts per million sodium bicarbonate in soil tests. This measure shows the amount of readily available phosphorus. Factors that reduce phosphorus uptake in plants include its low mobility in the soil, the P binding with other minerals like aluminum in the soil, and cold temperatures (below 10 °C). Factors that improve phosphorus uptake include using banding or strip-till methods for more precise placement of the fertilizer near plant roots and the presence of other nutrients like nitrogen. THE PRODUCTS Top-Phos is a granular fertilizer additive offered by Timac Agro Canada that only activates when the plant needs it. “If you put Top-Phos down in the fall, like in Chatham where they do strip-tilling, the phosphorus that’s banded in the fall will remain until there is a plant growing and taking it up,” says product manager Christopher Pertschy. Among its benefits are that the monocalcium phosphate is protected from fixing with other minerals, provides better root growth, is water soluble, and its gradual release to the plant means less phosphorus runoff and, therefore, a lower chance of polluting local waterways. In trials comparing the product to single super phosphates (SSP), 87 per cent more of the Top-Phos was still available to plants 28 days after application. It works equally well in low pH (5.6) and high pH (8.5) soils. It is an additive compatible with any fertilizer blends that can go into starters and can be either banded or broadcast. Crystal Green fertilizer is a magnesium ammonium phosphate (5-28-0 with 10 per cent magnesium) with minimal water solubility and is activated by organic acids naturally exuded by plant roots. “You need to get it in the root zone so it can be applied with strip-till, banding, broadcast incorporated, or in the drill with the seed,” says Doug Sibbitt, regional sales manager with OSTARA. “It cuts the phosphorus load to the soil, and it can be applied in the spring or the fall.” He cited research by North Dakota State University comparing mesh bags of Crystal Green, MAP (monoammonium phosphate) and DAP (diammonium phosphate) that were